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Tall oil precursors and turpentine in jack pine pinus banksiana and eastern white pine pinus strobus

Tall oil precursors and turpentine in jack pine pinus banksiana and eastern white pine pinus strobus

Wood Science 12(4): 194-200

The tall oil precursors and turpentine from jack pine (P. banksiana Lamb.) and eastern white pine (P. strobus L.) were investigated. The tall oil precursors (resin acids, fatty acids, and unsaponifiables) were determined by chemical fractionation of the nonvolatile diethyl ether extractives (NVEE) of these species: (approximate % resin acids, % fatty acids, % unsaponifiables, and % acids other than fatty and resin acids).sbd.jack pine sapwood (10, 60, 10, 20%), heartwood (38, 12, 6, 44%); eastern white pine sapwood (11, 57, 9, 22%), and heartwood (11, 18, 10, 62%). The resin acids were a mixture of the pimaric and abietic acids common to pines. In addition, eastern white pine contained major amounts of the resin acid, anticopalic acid. The fatty acids were predominantly oleic, linoleic, and 5, 9, 12-octadecatrienoic acids. The unsaponifiables were a complex mixture of diterpenes and sterols (mainly campesterol and sitosterol). On treating these species with paraquat, lightwood occurred in the sapwood but not in the heartwood areas as observed with other pines. The NVEE of the lightwood areas contained increased amounts of resin acids, unsaponifiables, and acids other than fatty and resin acids. The total fatty acid content was essentially unchanged. Since fatty acid components are preferentially lost by esterification with neutral alcoholic constituents in the unsaponifiables during the distillation refining of crude tall oil, the increased unsaponifiables relative to the constant fatty acid content might result in a net reduction in fatty acid recovery from lightered trees. The turpentine content of both jack and eastern white pine increased on lightering and was primarily a mixture of .alpha.- and .beta.-pinene.

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