Teratogenicity of cyclophosphamide metabolites: phosphoramide mustard, acrolein, and 4-ketocyclophosphamide in rat embryos cultured in vitro

Mirkes, P.E.; Fantel, A.G.; Greenaway, J.C.; Shepard, T.H.

Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 58(2): 322-330


ISSN/ISBN: 0041-008X
PMID: 7245204
DOI: 10.1016/0041-008x(81)90436-1
Accession: 006588159

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Phosphoramide mustard, acrolein and 4-ketocyclosphosphamide, stable metabolic products of bioactivated cyclophosphamide, were tested for their teratogenicity against rat embryos grown in vitro from day 10-11 of gestation. Results indicate that phosphoramide mustard is the teratogenic metabolite of cyclophosphamide, since the effects of phosphoramide mustard exactly parallel those of bioactivated cyclophosphamide. These effects are reductions in total embryo protein content, crown-rump length and number of somites, characteristic malformations and pattern of cell necrosis. Acrolein at a dose equimolar to a dose of bioactivated cyclophosphamide which produced malformations in 100% of treated embryos had no effect on any of the parameters measured. An equimolar dose of 4-ketocyclophosphamide had no effect on total embryo protein content or crown-rump length and number of somites, but consistently produced some malformed embryos. These kinds of malformations are not seen in embryos treated with phosphoramide mustard or bioactivated cyclophosphamide.