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The effect of time and sowing and row spacing on the maturity and yield of 3 groundnut arachis hypogaea cultivars under irrigation



The effect of time and sowing and row spacing on the maturity and yield of 3 groundnut arachis hypogaea cultivars under irrigation



Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 36(4): 615-622



White Spanish, Red Spanish and Virginia Bunch cultivars of A. hypogaea L. were sown at 2 row spacings (30 and 60 cm) and 2 times (Oct. 29 and Dec. 3) on an alkaline clay soil in western New Southe Wales [Australia]. The crops were furrow irrigated between raised beds 1 m wide. Maximum oven dry pod yields were 3.0, 2.3 and 3.3 t ha-1 for white Spanish, Red Spanish and Virgina Bunch, respectively. Corresponding shelling percentages were 65, 68 and 57%. White Spanish and Virginia Bunch matured 180-190 days after early sowing and Red Spanish after 210 days when frost stopped growth. The late sown crop failed to mature before the frosts, and yielded 15-25% less than the early sowing. The late crop had a shorter period for the production of pods and also a slightly lower rate of pod production because of reduced shoot growth; kernel weight per pod was similar at both sowings. Differences between cultivars were accounted for by differences in the rate of pod filling and hence ultimate kernel weight per pod, and furthermore, the harvest index differed among cultivars. White Spanish or Virginia Bunch sown in 30 cm rows before Dec. can be recommended for irrigated groundnut production in western New South Wales.

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