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The electrophysiological pattern of activity of the ureter muscle of the rabbit in vivo


, : The electrophysiological pattern of activity of the ureter muscle of the rabbit in vivo. Electromyography and Clinical Neurophysiology 24(3): 177-183

The electrophysical behavior of the ureteral smooth muscle was examined in vivo in 40 anesthetized rabbits. After the exposure of the ureter, a concentric needle was inserted in the muscle mass; in 5 rabbits a 2nd needle electrode was inserted 1 cm distal to the 1st electrode. The electrical signals were amplified up to X5000, taped, monitored and computerprocessed. Three basic types of activity were observed: slow phase activity, with a frequency of 4-10/min., duration of 1.2-2.0 s. and amplitude of 0.3-1.2 mV; fast phase activity, each burst consisting of 3-8 spikes, with a frequency of 6-15 min, duration of 0.1-0.4 s and amplitude of 0.05-0.15 mV/burst (both these types showing similar measurements in the same rabbit but different between the various rabbits); and rhythmic, regular activity, easily distinguished and followed between the 2 electrodes, with a velocity of .apprx. 1cm/s. This third type consisted of a cycle with a burst of fast activity, followed by a spike with high amplitude up to 2.2 mV and brief duration (0.3-0.5 s), followed by a slow wave. The technique demonstrates the electrical activity of the ureter muscle and enables accurate measurement of its parameters. In spite of certain drawbacks, it may provide useful and reliable information on pathological states and the effect of drugs. Peristalsis, which represents the contraction of its smooth muscle, is probably initiated in the renal pelvis and is propagated along the ureter at a velocity of 2-6 cm/s. The peristaltic wave is transmitted by the muscle cells, through the nexus and the close, intimate points of membrane contact between them. Since peristalsis is rhythmic, a pacemaker must be the generator of the ureteral contraction and it is probably located in the kidney pelvic area. Although the ureter receives a nerve supply independent of the bladder or kidney, previous evidence indicates that this pacemaker is most likely myogenic, and is little influenced by the pelvic or ureteral nerves. The study of the ureteral smooth muscle and and its peristalsis is very important especially for the assessment of drug effect. Most investigations are based on in vivo studies using techniques (e.g., catheter), evaluations of pressure and indirect methods (e.g., optoelectronic), or by in vitro studies in which the ureter is electrically stimulated in an organ bath. The indwelling catheter may interfere with the normal ureteral activity and the study of function of the smooth muscle must be separated from the uninary flow within the ureter. The effects of drugs upon the ureter are often poorly understood or controversial. In order to improve the understanding of the ureteral physiology, as well as the effects of drugs upon it, the pattern of electrophysiological behavior of the [rabbit] ureter muscle in vivo was presented along with the possible implications and applications of the results.

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Accession: 006670546

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