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The function of multiple and anti predator mechanisms in adult tiger beetles cicindela spp coleoptera cicindelidae

, : The function of multiple and anti predator mechanisms in adult tiger beetles cicindela spp coleoptera cicindelidae. Ecological Entomology 10(1): 65-72

Preator avoidance mechanisms of adult tiger beetles (Cicindela spp.) were investigated in the Sulphur Springs Valley of southeastern Arizona, USA. The predators were robber flies, lizards and birds. Effective antipredator characters included body size, orange abdomens, defence chemicals, flight and gregariousness. The number of these 5 major antipredator mechanisms exhibited by each tiger beetle species varied with habitat. The function and number of antipredator mechanisms was a complex interaction of deterrents; some were effective only in combination and some were characters that each deterred a different type of predator; in several cases the characters that reduced the probability of attack by one type of predator simultaneously increased the probability of attack by another type of predator.

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Related references

Pearson, DL., 1985: The function of multiple anti-predator mechanisms in adult tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). Predator avoidance mechanisms of Cicindela spp. were investigated in the Sulphus Springs Valley of south-eastern Arizona, USA. The predators were found to be robber flies, lizards and birds. Effective antipredator characters included body size, or...

Schultz, Td, 1986: Role of structural colors in predator avoidance by tiger beetles of the genus Cicindela (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America 32(3): 142-146

Freitag, R.L.e, S., 1972: Sound producing structures in adult Cicindela tranquebarica (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae) including a list of tiger beetles and ground beetles with flight wing files. Canadian entomologist: 104 (6) 851-857

Cassola, Fabio., 1998: Studies on tiger beetles 94 Predation of Cicindela campestris by a robberfly Coleoptera, Cicindelidae; Diptera, Asilidae Studi sui cicindelidi 94 Predazione su Cicindela campestris da parte di un asilide Coleoptera, Cicindelidae; Diptera, Asilidae. Bollettino dell'Associazione Romana di Entomologia. 1997( ); 521-4: 1-8

Kamoun, S., 1991: Parasematic coloration: a novel anti-predator mechanism in tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). Coloration in adult diurnal cicindelids has been proposed to function in crypsis, disruption by iridescence, mimicry and thermoregulation. Observations on Cicindela campestris atlantis in Tunisia suggest that parasematic coloration may also occur....

Pearson, D.L., 1990: The evolution of multi anti-predator characteristics as illustrated by tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). Tiger beetles (Cicindelidae) as a family show a broad spectrum of morphological, behavioural and physiological mechanisms by which their enemies are deterred. This phenomenon of multiple anti-predator mechanisms is also evident within species and...

Bertholf, J., 1983: Tiger beetles of the genus Cicindela in Arizona (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). Texas Tech University Museum Special Publications, 1-44 No. 19

Rumpp N.L., 1986: Two new tiger beetles of the genus cicindela from western usa cicindelidae coleoptera. Two new subspecies of Cicindela are described: C. scutellaris yampae of northwestern Colorado, [USA] and Cicindella formosa rutilovirescens of eastcentral New Mexico. Both subspecies are found at the periphery of the ranges of their respective spe...

Kritsky, G.; Horner, L.; Reidel, S.; Savage, A.J., 1996: The status of some tiger beetles (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae: Cicindela spp.) in southern Ohio. A survey of Cicindelidae in the Ohio counties that border the Ohio, Great Miami, and Little Miami rivers located eleven new county records. These include Cicindela sexguttata, reported in Brown, Gallia and Lawrence counties, and C. repanda from Br...

Gaumer, G.C., 1969: Coastal tiger beetles of Texas in the genus Cicindela (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae). Cicindela, 1(1): 2-16,2 pls