EurekaMag.com logo
+ Site Statistics
References:
48,253,228
Abstracts:
22,798,842
+ Resolve Accession
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
EurekaMag Most Shared ContentMost Shared
EurekaMag PDF Full Text ContentPDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full TextRequest PDF Full Text
Submit PDF Full TextSubmit PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter
Follow on Google+Follow on Google+
Follow on LinkedInFollow on LinkedIn

+ Translate

The functional meaning and significance of garrods muscle formula in avian systematics


, : The functional meaning and significance of garrods muscle formula in avian systematics. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal 61(7): 1023-1029

The muscle formula of avian hind limbs, ABCDEFGMNXYAmV, codes for 12 muscles and 1 tendon structure of the hind limb. The hind limb system comprises 43 muscles in all, but their complete set is present in representatives of the order Galliformes only. The formula comprises the most frequently absent muscles, especially in birds with a specialized type of locomotion. The reduction of certain muscles in such groups reflects a general efficiency of their organization. Simple strengthening of individual muscle groups in birds is impossible due to limitations imposed by the flight. An increase of power of the muscles related to a certain specialization of hind limbs is realized via the reduction of weak monofunctional muscles, often having strong synergists. The most reduced formula is characteristic of the Podicipedidae, Trochilidae, Apodidae, Piciformes, Cuculidae, Trogonidae, Coraciiformes, Falconidae, Pandionidae. The principal taxon characterized by the formula is a family. A more complete formula suggests a more archaic pattern of a family as compared with another one within the same order. In some cases the avian genera and species differ by the formula. Some muscles are characterized by individual variation.

(PDF 0-2 workdays service)

Order PDF Full Text

Close
Close

Click here to order any other PDF Full Text


Accession: 006680641

PDF Full Text: Submit


Submit PDF Full Text

No spam - Every submission is manually reviewed

Due to poor quality, we do not accept files from Researchgate

Submitted PDF Full Texts will always be free for everyone
(We only charge for PDFs that we need to acquire)

Select a PDF file:
Close
Close

Other references

Young, Michael; Yu, Z.; Tyler, S.; Chief, K.; Knight, E.; Healey, J.; Zhu, J.; Menon, M.; Mon, J., 2008: Examining arid soil processes in Nevada USA using weighing lysimeters. Geophysical Research Abstracts 10

Grekoff, N., 1982: Contribution a l'etude de l'endemie bilharzienne a la Martinique. Dissertation Abstracts International C European Abstracts, 433: 550

Largo, R.; Paiva, T.; Rosa, A.; Leitao, J. N., 1992: Studies on REM prediction by means of sleep EEG segmentation. Neurophysiologie Clinique 22(SUPPL 1): 42S

Gerard, Perry S.; Kaldawi, Emad; Litani, Vladas; Lenora, R. Aswini; Tessler, Sidney, 1993: Right-sided pneumothorax as a result of a left-sided chest tube. Chest 103(5): 1602-1603

Shamdas, Glenn, J.; Ahmann, Frederic, K.; Matzner, Monika, B.; Ritchie, Justine, M., 1993: Leukoerythroblastic anemia in metastatic prostate cancer: Clinical and prognostic significance in patients with hormone-refractory disease. Background. The clinical and prognostic significance of leukoerythroblastic anemia (LKEA) in patients with metastatic prostate cancer and, in general, patients with disseminated solid tumors is poorly understood. Therefore, the authors studied a p...

Espey L.L.; Dumitrescu J., 1980: Survey of anti inflammatory agents as inhibitors of ovulation in rabbits. Federation Proceedings 39(3): ABSTRACT 2930

Avise, J. C.; Nelson, W. S.; Arnold, J.; Koehn, R. K.; Williams, G. C.; Thorsteinsson, V., 1990: The evolutionary genetic status of Icelandic eels. The Iceland population of Anguilla eels has a high frequency of fish with vertebral numbers lower than those typical of European localities. Several hypotheses have been advanced to account for these morphologically atypical fish: for example, the...

Hermans, P.; Franchioly, P.; Thioux, C.; Gray, S. J.; Vannerom, H.; Clumeck, N., 1996: Minimum effective dose and duration to reverse neutropenia in non-cancer patients with advanced HIV disease. AIDS (London) 10(9): 1050-1051

Lewark, S.; Hoffmann, V.; Bludau, M., 1998: Disabled forestry workers: examples from research carried out by the Forestry Service of Niedersachsen. A survey was carried out in 1996 in Niedersachsen, Germany, to investigate the number of forestry workers unable to work to full capacity ('disabled') and the causes of their disability. The average age of 'disabled' forestry w...

Lehr, David, 1968: QRS-T variations in the rat electrocardiogram. The normal configuration and duration of the QRS complex, ascending and descending limbs of the T wave, the T wave, and the Q-aT and Q-T interval are described. The configuration of the QRS-T deflections was studied by dividing the electrical even...