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The lymphatic system of penguin spheniscidae spheniscus

, : The lymphatic system of penguin spheniscidae spheniscus. Jikeikai Medical Journal 26(4): 277-286

Four penguins were used for the macroscopic study of the lymphatic system. In the cephalo-cervical region, lymphatic vessels joined the vessels along v. [vena] jugularis and opened into v. subclavia near the venous angle. In the fore-limb, lymphatic vessels, accompanied by a [artery] and v. axillaris and a. and v. subclavia, entered v. subclavia near the venous angle directly or via the Lnn. cervicothoracici. In the hind-limb, lymphatic vessels from the foot passed into the popliteal fossa subcutaneously or along with a. and v. tibialis anterior and posterior, and then entered the pelvic cavity with a. and v. ischiadica, a. and v. femoralis, and a. and v. iliaca ext., finally turning into stems along the aorta abdominalis to form the ductus thoracicus. Lymphatic vessels along a. mesenterica cranialis and truncus celiacus poured their lymph into ducti thoracici dext and sin. in the abdominal region. Both opened into respective vv. subclaviae. In the penguins, the cervicothoracic lymph node was the only node. It accepted lymphatic vessels mainly from the cephalo-cervical region and partly from the fore-limb. No lymph nodes have been observed in the lumbar region at the macroscopic level. The lymphatic system of penguins were considered moderately well-differentiated when compared with other species of the aves.

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