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The macromitrium complex in australasia orthotrichaceae bryopsida part iii. cytotaxonomy

, : The macromitrium complex in australasia orthotrichaceae bryopsida part iii. cytotaxonomy. Journal of the Hattori Botanical Laboratory (61): 1-44

The taxonomy of the Australian species of Macromitrium Bird, appears in detail in Vitt (1983) for New Zealand and in Part I (Vitt and Ramsay 1985a) for Australia. A cladistic analysis of 30 character states separated the species into seven groups (see Vitt and Ramsay 1985a Figs. 342, 343, Table 1). All species within the genus are highly adapted epiphytes or saxicoles, with the physiological ability to tolerate periodic wetting and drying. This is reflected in such structural features as leaf size and shape, presence of leaf cell papillae, changes in leaf orientation, growth patterns of stems, and the sporophyte. The seven species groups in which the 32 Australasian species are placed are defined in Vitt and Ramsay (1985a). These diagnostic combinations present the critical synapotypic character states as well as other important common characteristics. Figures 1-4 illustrate several significant features of individual species groups, and give an over-all view of the Australasian species. Species in the M. microstomum group have long setae and the branches are variable in size. Branches of the M. gracile group are also variable in size, but consistently have relatively short setae. The M. longirostre group has species with large plants, whereas the three remaining groups have generally small-sized plants. Within these latter three groups, only one species (M. involutifolium) at all approaches the size of plants in the M. gracile, M. microstomum, or M. longirostre group (Fig. 1). The major differences in general appearance between species groups are also illustrated in Fig. 1. the M. longirostre group is distinct, having spirally arranged leaves whereas in the M. microstomum group leaves are funiculate. In the M. ligulare group, the leaves are erect, being whorled-erect or curved-erect in their arrangement. The M. hemitrichodes, and M. gracile groups are less easily recognized as groups based on leaf arrangement but individual species are distinct, for example M. gracile with fragile leaves. Lanceolate leaf shapes predominate in the M. microstomum, M. hemitrichodes, and M. gracile groups, while somewhat broader leaves are found in the M. aurescens and M. longirostre groups. The M. ligulare group is defined by ligulate leaves (Fig. 2). Although puckered capsule mouths are found in several groups of the Australasian Macromitria, they are especially prevalent in the M. microstomum group. Wide-mouthed capsules characterize the M. gracile group. The M. ligulare group has long capsules, tending to be collapsed or occasionally puckered at the mouth. The M. aurescens group also has long capsules, mostly puckered or only rarely collapsed at the mouth. Capsules found in the M. hemitrichodes group most closely resemble those of the M. microstomum group. The pachydermous capsules of the M. longirostre group are distinct among these Australasian species (Fig. 3). Calyptrae are plesiotypically naked, becoming hairy in a number of the species groups. All species in the M. microstomum and M. longirostre groups have naked calyptrae. These of the M. microstomum group tend to be split along one slit more than along the others. Calyptrae in the M. gracile group tend to be shorter than most other groups. Of the phylogenetically more derived species, only M. archeri has naked calyptrae (Fig. 4).

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