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The maintenance of females among hermaphrodites the importance of nuclear cytoplasmic interactions

, : The maintenance of females among hermaphrodites the importance of nuclear cytoplasmic interactions. Heredity 57(3): 325-330

Female plants of Thymus vulgaris produce more seeds than hermaphrodites but their frequency in a population is not determined by the magnitude of this advantage. Instead, the proximity of the population of equilibrium determines the frequency of females: the higher the frequency of females. This trend is due to founder effects occurring among cytoplasmic and nuclear genes determining male sterility. A review of literature supports the conclusions that male sterility in higher plants has a nuclear-cytoplasmic inheritance, that the frequency of female plants is often not at equilibrium, and that populations far from equilibrium (young and/or disturbed) have higher frequencies of females.

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