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The paraveinal mesophyll of soybean glycine max cultivar wye leaves in relation to assimilate transfer and compartmentation 2. structural metabolic and compartmental changes during reproductive growth



The paraveinal mesophyll of soybean glycine max cultivar wye leaves in relation to assimilate transfer and compartmentation 2. structural metabolic and compartmental changes during reproductive growth



Planta (Heidelberg) 157(5): 422-431



N and carbohydrate assimilates were temporally and spatially compartmented among various cell types in soybean (G. max L., Merr.) leaves during seed filling. The paraveinal mesophyll (PVM), a unique cell layer found in soybean, functioned in the synthesis, compartmentation and remobilization of N reserves prior to and during the seed-filling stages. At anthesis, the PVM vacuoles contain substantial protein which completely disappears by 2 wk into the seed filling. Distinct changes in the PVM cytoplasm, tonoplast and organelles were correlated with the presence or absence of the vacuolar material. Microautoradiography following the accumulation of several radiolabeled sugars and amino acids demonstrated the glycoprotein nature of the vacuolar material. Incorporation of methionine, leucine, glucose and glucosamine resulted in heavy labeling of the PVM vacuole, in contrast to galactose, proline and mannose which resulted in a much reduced labeling pattern. Starch is unequally compartmented and degraded among the various leaf cells during seed filling. At the end of the photoperiod at the flowering stage, the highest starch accumulation was in the 2nd palisade layer followed by the spongy mesophyll and the 1st (uppermost) palisade layer. Starch in the 1st palisade layer was completely degraded during the dark whereas the starch in the 2nd palisade and spongy mesophyll was not remobilized to any appreciable extent. By mid-podfilling (.apprx. 5 wk postanthesis) starch was absent in the 1st palisade layer at the end of the photoperiod while the 2nd palisade and spongy mesophyll layers contained substantial starch. Starch was remobilized from these latter cells during the remainder of seed filling when current photosynthetic production is low. Structural changes associated with cell senescence 1st appear in the upper palisade layer and then progress (excluding the PVM) to the 2nd palisade and spongy mesophyll layer. The PVM and phloem appear to retain their structural integrity into the leaf yellowing stage. Reducing sink capacity by pod removal resulted in a continued accumulation of vacuolar protein, an increase in cytoplasmic volume and fragmentation of the vacuole in the PVM. Pod removal also resulted in an increased amount of accumulated starch (which did not turn over) in all mesophyll layers, and an increase in cell size and cell-wall thickness.

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