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The prevalence of viruses of honey bees apis mellifera in britain uk

, : The prevalence of viruses of honey bees apis mellifera in britain uk. Annals of Applied Biology 97(1): 109-118

Adult individuals of honey bee colonies in Britain (UK) are commonly infected with several small RNA viruses. Black queen cell virus and bee virus Y are the most common and occur most frequently about June, together with Nosema apis which is intimately, but independently, associated with both viruses. Bee virus X is less common than bee virus Y and showed no pronounced seasonal fluctuations in local surveys; it was detected mostly in winter and early spring. Sacbrood virus occurred in adults of most local colonies in summer. Chronic paralysis virus and cloudy wing particle occurred commonly but without seasonal variations. Acute paralysis occurred commonly throughout the active season of bees, but does not multiply sufficiently to cause overt disease. Slow paralysis virus was rare.

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