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Variability in the lowest pod height of soybeans with regard to year of planting and planting density



Variability in the lowest pod height of soybeans with regard to year of planting and planting density



Bulletin of Hokkaido Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Stations (55): 13-22



The lowest pod height is one of the most important traits relating to harvest loss in the machinery cultivarton of soybeans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the response of the lowest pod height to different climatic conditions from year to year, and to planting density. The lowest pod height was indicated by the following three characteristics: the node of the lowest pod, the height of the node of the lowest pod and the percentage of the number of pods which were set at a low position (Fig. 1). Exp. 1: Twelve cultivars were studied with regard to variability of the lowest pod height between years at Tokachi agricultural Experiment Station from 1981 until 1985. The results are summarized as follows; 1) The lowest pod height varied markedly from year to year and became lower in years of lower cumulative temperature during the period from planting to the date of flowering. 2) The percentage of pods in a low position increased exponentially with increased height from the cotyledonary node. The regression equation was formularized as follows; log y = 0.095 x-0.872 (0 .ltoreq. .times. .ltoreq. 25), then y (%): percentage of number of lower pods, and x (cm): height from the cotyledonary node. 3) Little harvesting loss was thus estimated to occur upon setting the cutter bar at a height of 10 cm under the standard planting conditions in the Tokachi district, Hokkaido, Japan, but losses were presumed to increase upon setting the bar at 15 cm with respect to cultivar or year of planting. Exp. 2: Four cultivars were tested as to the lowest pod height at six density levels from 8.3 to 66. 7 plants/m2. The results are summarized as follows; 1) The lowest pod height was correlated with the density level. The regression equation was formularized as follows; y = 2.123 x + 3.460, then y (cm): the height of node of the lowest pod, and x [(number of plants)1/2/m2]: planting density. 2) Not only the lowest pod height but also the lodging score increased with dense planting, resulting in enhanced elongation of the internode due to severe competition among plants within a low. in order to reduce the harvesting losses caused by such high density of planting, the resistance to lodging of cultivars must therefore be considered.

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