Yield and grain quality responses of soft red winter wheat triticum aestivum exposed to ozone during anthesis
Mulchi, C.L.; Sammons, D.J.; Baenziger, P.S.
Agronomy Journal 78(4): 593-600
ISSN/ISBN: 0002-1962 DOI: 10.2134/agronj1986.00021962007800040008x
Six soft red winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were exposed to a simulated air pollution episode during anthesis in field studies conducted during 1979 and 1980. The air pollution treatments equaled 23 .+-. nL L-1, 47 .+-. 10 nL L-1 (ambient) and 123 .+-. 4 nL L-1 ozone for 4 h day-1 for 5 days in May. The primary objectives were to examine the effects of air pollution episodes along the mid-Atlantic stages [USA] during wheat pollinaton in May on yields and grain quality characteristics. Plant characteristics examined included total plant dry weights, grain weights, harvest index, seed set, seed weight, grain protein contents, particle size index, and alkaline water retention capacity. Environmental conditions in 1979 favored greater plant productivity than in 1980 and significant (P.ltoreq.0.05) year effects were observed for four of eight characteristics examined. Also, ozone treatment responses were greater in 1979 than in 1980. Significant (P.ltoreq.0.05) ozone treatment effects were observed for seven of eight characteristics and significant year .times. treatment interactions were found for all eight variables. Although significant cultivar differences were noted for all eight variables, the only significant treatment .times. cultivar interactions found were for grain weights, harvest index, and seed weights. The results further suggest that multiple environments should be considered and grain quality characteristics should be examined in addition to yields and yield components when evaluating responses among wheat cultivars to ozone stress.