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Adenosine triphosphate stimulates phosphoinositide metabolism, mobilizes intracellular calcium, and inhibits terminal differentiation of human epidermal keratinocytes



Adenosine triphosphate stimulates phosphoinositide metabolism, mobilizes intracellular calcium, and inhibits terminal differentiation of human epidermal keratinocytes



Journal of Clinical Investigation 90(1): 42-51



During wound healing, release of ATP from platelets potentially exposes the epidermis to concentrations of ATP known to alter cellular functions mediated via changes in inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and intracellular calcium (Cai) levels. Therefore, we determined whether keratinocytes respond to ATP with a rise in Cai and IP3 and whether such increases are accompanied by a change in their proliferation and differentiation. Changes in Cai were measured in Indo-1-loaded neonatal human foreskin keratinocytes after stimulation with extracellular ATP. Extracellular ATP evoked a transient and acute increase in Cai of keratinocytes both in the presence and in the absence of extracellular calcium. ATP also induced the phosphoinositide turnover of keratinocytes, consistent with its effect in releasing calcium from intracellular sources. ATP did not permeabilize keratinocytes, nor did it promote Ca influx into the cells. The half-maximal effect of ATP was at 10 microM, and saturation was observed at 30-100 microM. UTP, ITP, and ATP gamma S were as effective as ATP in releasing Cai from intracellular stores and competed with ATP for their response, whereas AMP and adenosine were ineffective, suggesting the specificity of P2 purinergic receptors in mediating the ATP response in keratinocytes. Single cell measurements revealed heterogeneity in the calcium response to ATP. This heterogeneity did not appear to be due to differences in the initial Cai response but to subsequent removal of increased Cai by these cells. ATP inhibited terminal differentiation of keratinocytes as measured by [35S]methionine incorporation into cornified envelopes and modestly stimulated incorporation of [3H]thymidine into DNA. Chelation of Cai by bis-(o-aminophenoxy)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid reduced basal Cai, blocked the Cai response to ATP, inhibited the basal rate of DNA synthesis, and blocked the ATP-induced increase in DNA synthesis. We conclude that extracellular ATP may be an important physiological regulator of epidermal growth and differentiation acting via IP3 and Cai.

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Accession: 006988552

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PMID: 1321844


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