+ Site Statistics
References:
54,258,434
Abstracts:
29,560,870
PMIDs:
28,072,757
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Cautionary note on the use of the B subunit of cholera toxin as a ganglioside GM1 probe: detection of cholera toxin A subunit in B subunit preparations by a sensitive adenylate cyclase assay



Cautionary note on the use of the B subunit of cholera toxin as a ganglioside GM1 probe: detection of cholera toxin A subunit in B subunit preparations by a sensitive adenylate cyclase assay



Journal of Cellular Biochemistry 42(3): 143-152



The use of the B subunit of cholera toxin, a protein that binds specifically to ganglioside GM1, has provided a new paradigm for studying physiological functions of ganglioside GM1. The B subunit inhibited the growth of rat glioma C6 cells that had been pretreated with ganglioside GM1. In some preparations of the B subunit, the inhibition was independent of adenylate cyclase activation and was due to the binding of the B subunit to ganglioside GM1 inserted onto the cell surface. However, in other preparations of the B subunit, there was an additional inhibitory effect due to small contaminations with the A subunit, which caused increases in intracellular cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and concomitant growth inhibition. This vanishingly small contamination with the A subunit could not be detected by conventional protein sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis but could be measured utilizing a sensitive adenylate cyclase activation assay. Thus caution must be used to ensure that any biological effects of the B subunit are not due to contaminating A subunit and are due solely to the binding of the B subunit to ganglioside GM1 exposed on the cell surface. This is especially important in cyclic nucleotide-sensitive systems.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 007084463

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 2156874

DOI: 10.1002/jcb.240420305


Related references

Synergistic action of cholera toxin B subunit (and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin B subunit) and a trace amount of cholera whole toxin as an adjuvant for nasal influenza vaccine. Vaccine 12(5): 419-426, 1994

Developmental differences in the expression of the cholera toxin sensitive subunit (Gs alpha) of adenylate cyclase in the rat small intestine. Gut 38(6): 853-858, 1996

The adjuvant effect of cholera toxin cholera toxin b subunit and glutaraldehyde modified cholera toxin on the mucosal immune response of rabbits to 2 acetylaminofluorene thyroglobulin conjugates. FASEB Journal 4(3): A500, 1990

A promoter responsible for over-expression of cholera toxin B subunit in cholera toxin A subunit structure gene. Yi Chuan Xue Bao 24(1): 78-86, 1997

Conformational changes in subunit A of cholera toxin following the binding of ganglioside to subunit B. European Journal of Biochemistry 122(2): 333-337, 1982

Clone and express ctb-stx2b fusion gene in Enterohemrrhagic escherichia coli O157:H7 Shigeal toxin 2B subunit and V cholera toxin B subunit and the detection of their immunogenicity. Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi 29(4): 378-382, 2008

Evidence that human platelet alpha-adrenergic receptors coupled to inhibition of adenylate cyclase are not associated with the subunit of adenylate cyclase ADP-ribosylated by cholera toxin. Journal of Biological Chemistry 257(17): 10471-8, 1982

Small fragments from the A subunit of cholera toxin capable of activating adenylate cyclase. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 73(8): 2654-2658, 1976

Short communications. Subunit A from cholera toxin is an activator of adenylate cyclase in pigeon erythrocytes. Biochemical Journal 146(1): 269-271, 1975

Expression of toxin co-regulated pilus subunit A of Vibrio cholerae and its immunogenic epitopes fused to cholera toxin B subunit in transgenic tomato. Plant Cell Reports: 2, 307-318, 2008

Expression of toxin co-regulated pilus subunit A (TCPA) of Vibrio cholerae and its immunogenic epitopes fused to cholera toxin B subunit in transgenic tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Plant Cell Reports 27(2): 307-318, 2007

Interaction of gm 1 ganglioside with cholera toxin b subunit. Federation Proceedings 41(4): ABSTRACT 5352, 1982

Cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) entrapped in microparticles shows comparable immunogenicity to CTB mixed with whole cholera toxin following oral immunization. International Journal of Pharmaceutics (Amsterdam) 119(2): 251-255, 1995

Interneuronal transfer of axonally transported proteins: studies with HRP and HRP conjugates of wheat germ agglutinin, cholera toxin and the B subunit of cholera toxin. Brain Research 311(2): 366-369, 1984

Protection against experimental cholera in the rat. A study on the formation of antibodies against cholera toxin and desensitization of adenylate cyclase after immunization with cholera toxin. International Archives of Allergy and Applied Immunology 75(2): 143-148, 1984