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Comparison between clinical and pathological staging in low stage nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumors



Comparison between clinical and pathological staging in low stage nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumors



Journal of Urology 148(1): 76-79



Between January 1985 and December 1990, 208 consecutive patients with low stage nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumors underwent retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy. In all of the patients the disease was staged with post-orchiectomy serum .alpha.-fetoprotein and .beta. subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin determinations, as well as chest x-rays and computerized tomography or magnetic resonance imaging of the abdomen and pelvis. Bipedal lymphangiography was performed in 139 patients. Of the 208 patients 173 (83%) had clinical stage 1 and 35 (17%) had low clinical stage 2 disease: 21 had tumors on radiographic imaging that were smaller than 2 cm. (clinical stage 2A) and 14 had tumors between 2 and 3 cm. (clinical stage 2B less than 3 cm.). Retroperitoneal metastases were found in 31 of 156 clinical stage 1 cancer patients (19.8%) with negative or normally decreasing serum tumor markers after orchiectomy, 15 of 16 (93.8%) with persistent positive markers, 8 of 14 clinical stage 2A cancer patients (57.1%) with negative or normally decreasing markers, all 7 stage 2A cancer patients with positive markers and all 14 clinical stage 2B cancer patients. Lymphangiography added little to the reliability of clinical staging. We conclude that due to the relatively low accuracy of clinical staging, retroperitoneal lymphadenectomy remains the treatment of choice for clinical stages 1 and 2A nonseminomatous germ cell testicular tumors with normal serum markers after orchiectomy.

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Accession: 007138011

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PMID: 1319508

DOI: 10.1016/s0022-5347(17)36514-x


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