+ Site Statistics
References:
54,258,434
Abstracts:
29,560,870
PMIDs:
28,072,757
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Cough test to assess cardiovascular autonomic reflexes in diabetes



Cough test to assess cardiovascular autonomic reflexes in diabetes



Diabetes Care 13(7): 719-724



Coughing induces cardioacceleratory responses under cholinergic control. The Cough Test (CT), a standardized test that uses a series of coughs with electrocardiographic monitoring, was used to assess the functional integrity of cardiovascular autonomic nerves. In 224 control subjects and 235 diabetic patients, heart-rate (HR) responses were compared with four established tests: lying to standing (LS), standing to lying (SL), deep breathing (DB), and Valsalva maneuver (VM). In control subjects, HR responses declined significantly with age in a curvilinear pattern. Log-transformed indices were used to estimate percentiles. The CT-HR responses were reproducible and significantly associated with other HR-response tests. Sixty-nine (29%) diabetic patients had an abnormal value less than or equal to 1st percentile, whereas only 2 control subjects had such an abnormality. Among diabetic patients, age and duration of diabetes exerted a significant negative influence. With the use of the criteria of two abnormal or one abnormal and two borderline tests (among CT, LS, SL, DB, or VM) as a minimal criteria for cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, CT and LS had the least overlap between the control and diabetic populations and were significantly better than SL or VM (P less than 0.005 for CT, P less than 0.01 for LS). They were not different from DB. We found the CT to be simple to perform, reproducible, and useful for the assessment of cardiovascular autonomic reflexes.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 007165805

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 2387193

DOI: 10.2337/diacare.13.7.719


Related references

The squatting test. A useful tool to assess both parasympathetic and sympathetic involvement of the cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes. Diabetes 43(4): 607-612, 1994

Precocious changes of cardiovascular reflexes in diabetes without clinical signs of autonomic neuropathy. Alimentazione Nutrizione Metabolismo 5(2): 169-174, 1984

Abnormalities in cardiovascular autonomic reflexes in type 1 diabetes clinical correlates. American Journal of Noninvasive Cardiology 6(4): 242-246, 1992

Use of runs test to assess cardiovascular autonomic function in diabetic subjects. Diabetes Care 17(2): 146-148, 1994

Clinical usefulness of MemCalc 1000 to assess the autonomic nerve function test in patients with diabetes mellitus. Journal of the Japan Diabetes Society 38(7): 485-490, 1995

Improvement of cardiovascular autonomic reflexes after amelioration of metabolic control in insulin-dependent diabetic subjects with severe autonomic neuropathy. Hormone and Metabolic Research 17(8): 410-413, 1985

Corticotropin-releasing factor modulates cardiovascular and pupillary autonomic reflexes in man: is there a link to inflammation-induced autonomic nervous hyperreflexia?. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences 966: 373-383, 2002

Squatting, a posture test for studying cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in diabetes. Diabetes & Metabolism 37(6): 489-496, 2012

Why not to use the handgrip test in the assessment of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy among patients with diabetes mellitus?. Current Vascular Pharmacology (): -, 2016

Attenuation of cardiovascular and cough reflexes during extubation. Anaesthesia 57(10): 1034-5; Author Reply 1035, 2002

A new test for autonomic cardiovascular and neuroendocrine responses in diabetes mellitus: evidence for early vagal dysfunction. Diabetologia 48(1): 180-186, 2004

Cardiovascular responses to sustained handgrip in normal subjects and in patients with diabetes mellitus: a test of autonomic function. Clinical Science and Molecular Medicine 46(3): 295-306, 1974

Clinical usefulness of baroreflex sensitivity test in the detection of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski 39(233): 277-280, 2016

Haemodynamic changes during a squat test, pulsatile stress and indices of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy in patients with long-duration type 1 diabetes. Diabetes & Metabolism 38(1): 54-62, 2012

Cardiovascular autonomic reflexes in mid-pregnancy. British Journal Of Obstetrics & Gynaecology. 100(2): 177-182, 1993