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Cranial base angulation and prognathism related to cranial and general skeletal maturation in human fetuses



Cranial base angulation and prognathism related to cranial and general skeletal maturation in human fetuses



Journal of Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology 12(1): 22-32



The purpose of the present study was to describe normal midsagittal craniofacial morphology in second trimester human fetuses. Measurements of the cranial base angle and the prognathism of the maxilla and the mandible were performed on radiographs of cranial midsagittal tissue blocks of 52 tissues with a gestational age from 13 to 27 weeks. Special procedures were developed for the definitions of the nasion and sella reference points on the radiographs in the early stages of fetal development. Mean data were reported for stages of crown rump length (CRL) and maturation of the fetal cranial base (MSS), usable as reference in assessment of pathological fetal crania in reports and autopsy procedures. Regression equations were determined for the regression of the angular values on CRL, MSS, and general skeletal maturation (TNO). The cranial base angle was found to decrease significantly, and the angles of prognathism to increase significantly with increasing CRL, TNO, and MSS values. It was suggested that these simultaneous and similar changes in the three angles could be accounted for by the upwards movement of the sella point produced by a cranial displacement of the pituitary fossa caused by local cartilagenous growth and bony remodelling during the period of study. The study thus reflects the influence of cranial skeletal maturation on the early development in shape of the craniofacial complex.

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Accession: 007166625

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PMID: 1572937


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