Dietary manipulation with high marine fish oil intake of fatty acid composition and arachidonic acid metabolism in rat cerebral microvessels

Kálmán, J.; Gecse, A.; Farkas, T.; Joó, F.; Telegdy, G.; Lajtha, A.

Neurochemical Research 17(2): 167-172

1992


ISSN/ISBN: 0364-3190
PMID: 1531701
DOI: 10.1007/bf00966795
Accession: 007205801

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Abstract
Male weanling Wistar rats were maintained on one of two semisynthetic diets, differing only in the type of oil used: 10% by weight marine fish oil (MFO group) containing 20% eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and 17% docosahexaenoci acid (DHA), or 10% by weight sunflower oil (SFO group). The control group was kept on standard diet for 4 weeks. Blood-free microvessels were isolated from brain cortex by a rapid micromethod, and fatty acid composition was determined by gas chromatography. It was found that the proportion of n-3 fatty acids (including EPA and DHA) increased significantly in the microvessels of the MFO group, accompanied by a decrease of the n-6 fatty acid series. The changes in fatty acid composition of endothelial cells were not significant in the SFO group in comparison to the control. The amounts of lipoxygenase and cyclooxygenase metabolites were determined. Dietary fish oil decreased the percentage of total products of arachidonate by 50%, while the SFO diet had no effect on it. The amount of lipoxygenase products in the MFO group decreased significantly from 16931 .+-. 3131 dpm to 6399 .+-. 357 dpm/300 mg wet weight of brain. Significantly less PGF-1.alpha., PGF-2.alpha. and 12-hydroxyheptadecatrienoic acid (HHT) were found in the capillaries of MFO treated animals, in comparison to the SFO group. The ratios of vasoconstrictor and vasodilator metabolites of arachidonate cascade were not modified by the diets. Our results suggest that fish oil diet reduces the archidonate cascade in cerebral microvessels. This effect may explain for the efficiency of n-3 fatty acids in vascular diseases.

Dietary manipulation with high marine fish oil intake of fatty acid composition and arachidonic acid metabolism in rat cerebral microvessels