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Effect of glucose ingestion on plasma lipids apolipoproteins and lcat activity during prolonged strenuous exercise


Effect of glucose ingestion on plasma lipids apolipoproteins and lcat activity during prolonged strenuous exercise



Bulletin of the Physical Fitness Research Institute 73: 1-17



A large number of studies have indicated that the level of plasma high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-chol.) is inversely related to the risk of developing coronary heart disease (CHD). It has also been shown that endurance athletes have elevated levels of HDL-chol. and lower levels of TG, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL-chol.) when compared with sedentary subjects. From these studies it seems to appear that physical training has beneficial effects on the lipid profile with regard to the CHD. Although, it has been suggested that apolipoproteins are better indicators of cardiovascular risk than the lipid components of the lipoprotein, there are only few reports on changes in apolipoproteins during physical exercise. On the other hand, it has been demonstrated that carbohydrate feedings during prolonged strenous exercise can delay the development of fatigue. However, there has been few reports on the changes in apoliporoteins under the above-mentioned circumstances. In the present study, therefore, we examined the effect of glucose polymer ingestion before exercise on the lipid levels, especially apoliproteins and lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity during acute prolonged exercise. Six healthy men were studied after an overnight fast. Their mean (.+-. SD) age, weight and .ovrhdot.VO2max were 24.3 .+-. 3.9 yr, 66.6 .+-. 7.4 kg, and 3.64 .+-. 0.3 l/min. respectively. Physical exercise was made by them on a bicycle ergometer at pedalling rate of 50 rpm., regulating the intensity in each person so as to get almost exhausted in about 60.apprx.120 minutes on the basis of the results of the .ovrhdot.VO2max. Fifteen minutes prior to exercise each subject ingested 1.6 g/kg body weight glucose polymer (G.P) (6% glucose, 50% maltose, 44% dextrin) or water (W). Second trial was performed at least 1 wk later and followed the same exercise protocol as in the first trial. The experiments were conducted in a double-blind manner. The apolipoproteins A-I, A-II, B, C-II, C-III, and E were analyzed by single radial immunodiffusion method (Daiichi Pure Chemicals. Co., Ltd) Results obtained can be summarized as follows; Mean time to exhaustion was 20% longer in G.P trial than in W trial (101.5 .+-. 12.1 min. vs 84.3 .+-. 9.0 min.) No significant differences were observed between the two trials for .ovrhdot.VO2mas, RQ, or heart rate. The ingestion of G.P at 15 min. before exercise produced a 42% rise in plasma glucose and a 5.5 fold rise in plasma insulin at immediately before exercise when compared with the values before G.P. ingestion. Hematocrit values (Ht) immediately before exercise was significantly higher in G.P trial than that in W trial, but no significant difference during exercise between the trials. Resting plasma levels of HDL-chol., LDL-chol., apo A-I, apo B, or LCAT activity were not affected by G.P ingestion. However, resting plasma levels of TG, apo A-I and Ht in G.P trial were significantly higher than those in W trial. Significant increases in apo A-I and apo A-II were observed before exercise in both trials. G.P trial showed significantly higher (2-fold) increase than that in W trial during exercise. The increases in apo B and apo E levels during exercise seemed to be smaller in G.P trial than in W trial. During this period of exercise apo B/A-I ratio was significantly lower in G.P trial than in W trial. (0.43 vs 0.48, p < 0.05). The plasma concentrations of apo C-II and C-III tended to increase duirng exercise in both trials, but not differ significantly between the two trials. Apo C-II/C-III ratios, however, in both period of exercise and recovery were significantly (p < 0.05) smaller in G.P trial than in W trial. LCAT activity was elevated by approximately 7% (453 to 485 U) in G.P trial and 4% in W trial immediately after exercise. No significant difference was observed between the two trials. The above-mentioned findings seemed to suggest that apolipoproteins might play an important role in the regulation of lipid and lipoprotein metabolism during prolonged physical a.

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