Section 8
Chapter 7,264

Effect of time of sowing and cultivar on the development and grain yield of irrigated wheat in the macquarie valley new south wales

Cooper, J.L.

Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture 32(3): 345-353


Accession: 007263327

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Field experiments over 2 seasons in the Macquarie Valley of central new South Wales [Australia] compared yields under irrigation of 5 wheat varieties with a wide range of maturities, sown from 8 April to 27 August. Early maturity wheats (Yecora and Avocet) sown prior to 6 May suffered frost damage, while the winter wheats (WW33G and Burgas) sown after 29 July were not fully vernalised and most tillers failed to produce heads. There was a curvilinear relation between time of sowing and grain yield. Excluding the treatments which suffered frost damage, the earliest time of sowing (8 April) produced the highest yield, with a 6.4% yield reduction between 8 April and 8 May. The yield reduction increased with later sowing date: 13.3, 19.3, and 26.5% during May, June, and July. Anthesis in mid September produced the highest yields for all varieties. Treatments which flowered earlier than mid September suffered frost damage. For each day later than 15 September that anthesis occurred, the means yield fell by 1.3% or about 68 kg/ha.day. Date of anthesis had no detectable effect on the rate of individual grain growth (1.3 mg/grain.day), but the later anthesis occurred, the shorter the duration of rain development and the lower the final grain weight. Rising temperatures, not moisture stress, seems to be the factor causing the decline in yield with late sowing. This experiment was irrigated to eliminate moisture stress but the decline in yield was similar to that reported for dryland crops.

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