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Effects of deep sea water on the growth of a marine diatom species skeletonema costatum



Effects of deep sea water on the growth of a marine diatom species skeletonema costatum



Bulletin of Plankton Society of Japan 35(1): 45-56



Batch culture experiments were carried out using a marine diatom species, Skeletonema costatum (Greville) Cleve. in filtered seawater smaples collected from various depths of 0, 5, 20, 40, 60, 80, 150, 200, 300, 400, 500 and 600 m off .hivin.O-shima Island, southern Sagami Bay, Japan. Chemicals of several trace metals, vitamins, EDTA and TRIS, and inoculum size were tested for the effects on the growth of S. costatum. The experimental cultures were conducted at 23.degree. C under a light: dark cycle (12h: 12h) of 3,000 lx (47 .mu.E.cntdot.m-2.cntdot.s-1), at which the stain was acclimated for two weeks in filtered deep sea water prior to the experiment. S. costatum grew to reach a final cell concentration of 35.6 .times. 104 cells.cntdot.ml-1 with a specific growth rate (.mu.) of 0.72.cntdot.day-1 in the filtered seawater collected from 600 m, although the culture exhibited a lag preriod in the growth. Enrichment experiments using the filtered 600 m seawater revealed that none of the trace mtals, vitamins and TRIS gave any substantial effect on the growth of S. costatum but EDTA over 100 .mu.g.cntdot.l-1, an optimium being 200 .mu.g.cntdot.l-1, significantly reduced the duration of lag period. Increasing inoculum isze also reduced the duration of lag period. These results suggest that deep sea water is deficient in organic chelator which reduces the lag period, and that S. costatum cells excrete some organic chelator to make the deep sea water more suitable to growth. Specific growth rate and final cell yield of S. costatum were both depressed at the shallower depths due to a deficiency of macronutrients. Availability of possible organic chelator evaluated from EDTA experiments seems to be sufficient at the shallower depths but insufficient at the greater depths. Based upon the vertical distributions of macronutrients and organic chelator, the present seawater column was classified into the following three types. Type I: surface seawater, above the compensation depth, rich in organic chelator but poor in inorganic nutrients, Type II: mixed seawater, immediately below the compensation depth, containing proper quantities of both organic chelator and inorganic nutrients, and Type III: deep sea water, below the mixed seawater, poor in organic chelator but rich in inorganic nutrients.

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