Effects of high sodium diet on dopaminergic mechanism in normal and hypertensive subjects

Takahashi, M.; Miura, Y.; Sano, N.; Ohzeki, T.; Sugawara, T.; Noshiro, T.; Meguro, Y.; Watanabe, H.; Shimizu, K.; Hanew, K.

Nihon Naibunpi Gakkai Zasshi 64(11): 1157-1168


ISSN/ISBN: 0029-0661
PMID: 3065095
DOI: 10.1507/endocrine1927.64.11_1157
Accession: 007276223

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To investigate the effects of dietary sodium on the peripheral dopaminergic mechanism, changes of unconjugated plasma dopamine(DA) and its related humoral factors were studied in 8 patients with essential hypertension(EH) and 8 age-matched normal controls(N) while they were receiving ordinary meals (Na, 130-180 mEq daily) followed by higher sodium (250-300 mEq daily) diets for a week. Plasma and urinary DA, norepinephrine(NE) and epinephrine(E) were measured by the highly sensitive COMT-mediated radioenzymatic procedure, which permits an accurate estimation of plasma DA as low as 5-6 pg/ml. Under high sodium diets, blood pressure and heart rate were not changed significantly in N and EH subjects. Urinary NE and E tended to decrease, while urinary DA increased significantly in both groups of subjects (p less than 0.05). There was a significant correlation between urinary sodium and DA (r = 0.590, p less than 0.001), but plasma DA failed to correlate significantly to urinary sodium or DA in all subjects. Plasma NE and E tended to decrease in both N and EH subjects, while plasma DA increased significantly (p less than 0.05) in EH from 7.2 +/- 0.8 pg/ml [mean +/- SEM] to 9.3 +/- 1.0 and slightly in N from 9.1 +/- 1.8 to 11.2 +/- 1.3. Plasma renin activity(PRA) and plasma aldosterone(PAC) were invariably decreased in all subjects, while plasma prolactin(PRL) remained unchanged. A significant correlation was observed between plasma DA and NE under ordinary meals (r = 0.733, p less than 0.01), but this correlation disappeared under high sodium diets. Plasma DA showed an inverse correlation to PAC (r = 0.351, p less than 0.05) under both dietary conditions. Upright posture induced a significant rise (p less than 0.05) in NE, E, DA, PRA and PAC with ordinary meals, but the responses of NE and PAC were apparently attenuated with high sodium diets. An intravenous injection of metoclopramide (MCP, 10 mg), a DA receptor antagonist, provoked a slight rise in plasma NE and DA with ordinary meals, of which responses were further enhanced with high sodium diets. MCP induced a definite rise in PAC and PRL in all subjects under both dietary conditions (p less than 0.01), while plasma E and PRA remained unchanged after MCP challenge. The results lend support to the view that unconjugated plasma DA could be a useful marker of peripheral dopaminergic activity, which might be a physiological regulator responsible for the suppression of aldosterone secretion and sympathetic nerve activity observed during high sodium intake.