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Factors liberating growth lag of a diatom skeletonema costatum in deep sea water i. liberation by adding various organic matter



Factors liberating growth lag of a diatom skeletonema costatum in deep sea water i. liberation by adding various organic matter



Bulletin of Plankton Society of Japan 38(2): 93-104



To elucidate probable factors causing the lag period of phytoplankton growth in deep sea water, batch culture experiments were carried out using a diatom, Skeletonema costatum (GREVILLE) CLEVE, in the filtered deep sea water collected from off Oshima Island, southern Sagami Bay, Japan. Some natural organic matter (filtrate of S. costatum cultures at the logarithmic growth phase, cell extract of the log phase S. costatum cells, and body extract of Acartia clausi s.l.) and chemicals (glycolic acid, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and cupric chloride) were applied to study the effects on the duration of lag period, the specific growth rate and the final cell yield of S. costatum. The experiments were conducted at 23.degree. C under a light:dark cycle (12h: 12h) of 47 .mu.E .cntdot. m-2 .cntdot. s-1. S. costatum population increased up to a final cell concentration of 12.8 .RTM. 104 cells .cntdot. ml-1 with a specific growth rate (.mu.; calculated using natural logarithm) of 0.73 .cntdot. day-1, after a lag period of 1.6 days in the filtered sea water collected from 530 m depth. EDTA did not give any substantial effect on the specific growth rate and the final cell yield but reduced the duration of lag period in the growth. The filtrate, the body extract and glycolic acid also gave the same effects on the growth as EDTA, although the extract did not produce any such effect. Fractionated filtrate of S. costatum cultures using molecular sieving showed that molecular weight fraction less than 500MW reduced the duration of lag period of the growth in the filtered 500m-depth sea water. Addition of the combined cupric chloride ranging from 5 to 15 .mu.g .cntdot. l-1 did not give any obvious effect on the specific growth rate of S. costatum in the filtered 530m-depth sea water. With the increase of cupric chloride concentrations, the duration of lag period was enhanced and the final cell yield was slightly decreased. The filtrate of the culture medium of S. costatum at the log phase, glycolic acid, the body extract and EDTA reduced the inhibitory effects of cupric chloride mentioned above. These results show that deep sea water did not contain much amount of organic chelators enough to reduce the lag period of algal growth, although it contained much of essential nutrients for algae. The filtrate of algal growth medium, glycolic acid and the body extract of zooplankton have the same chelating ability as EDTA. S. costatum cells excrete some organic chelator(s) such as glycolic acid less than 500 MW which conditioned the deep sea water more suitable for the growth of algae. These results also suggest that copper, especially ionic copper might be an essential factor inducing the lag period observed in phytoplankton growth using deep sea water.

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