Habu trimeresurus flavoviridis bites on the amami islands of japan in 1988
Sawai, Y.; Kawamura, Y.
Snake 22(1): 1-7
In 1988, 133 bites by habu (Trimeresurus flavoviridis) were reported on the Amami Islands in which 74 (55.6%) of the total bites occurred in Tokunoshima Is., whereas 59 (44.4%) bites were in Amami Main Is. The average morbidity rate per 1000 population is 1.17 in which the highest rate is 2.79 in Isen of Tokunoshima Is. and the lowest one is 0.17 in Naze City of Amami Mainland. During warmer months from May to July, 65 (48.8%) of the total bites are reported. The highest incidence of the bites is shown in the age of fifties (35.1%), although the ages of bite are extended from teens to eighties. Bites in males are three times as frequent as in females, 80 (60.1%) of the total bites occurred in agricultural field and 34 (25.6%) of the bites occurred in residence and on road. 95 (71.4%) of the total bites occurred in daylight hours from 6 a.m. to 6 p.m. of which 66 (69.5%) occurred in agricultural field. On the other hand, 38 (28.6%) bites occurred in dark hours from 6 p.m. to 6 a.m. in which 22 (57.9%) bites occurred in residence and on road. 77 (57.9%) of the total bites occurred in upper extremities and 51 (38.4%) and 19 (14.3%) are bites in fingers and hands, respectively. In lower extremities, 29 (21.8%) and 18 (13.5%) bites occurred on lower leg and in foot, respectively. The patients received intravenous injection of habu antivenom within one hour after the bite. Out of 133 bites, two deaths (1.5%) occurred and certain motor disturbances remained in 6 (4.5%) cases.