EurekaMag
+ Most Popular
Cunninghamia lanceolata plantations in China
Mammalian lairs in paleo ecological studies and palynology
Studies on technological possibilities in utilization of anhydrous milk fat for production of recombined butter-like products
Should right-sided fibroelastomas be operated upon?
Large esophageal lipoma
Apoptosis in the mammalian thymus during normal histogenesis and under various in vitro and in vivo experimental conditions
Poissons characoides nouveaux ou non signales de l'Ilha do Bananal, Bresil
Desensitizing efficacy of Colgate Sensitive Maximum Strength and Fresh Mint Sensodyne dentifrices
Administration of fluid by subcutaneous infusion: revival of a forgotten method
Tundra mosquito control - an impossible dream?
Schizophrenia for primary care providers: how to contribute to the care of a vulnerable patient population
Geochemical pattern analysis; method of describing the Southeastern limestone regional aquifer system
Incidence of low birth weights in a hospital of Mexico City
Tabanidae
Graded management intensity of grassland systems for enhancing floristic diversity
Microbiology and biochemistry of cheese and fermented milk
The ember tetra: a new pygmy characid tetra from the Rio das Mortes, Brazil, Hyphessobrycon amandae sp. n. (Pisces, Characoidei)
Risk factors of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients after coronary artery intervention
Renovation of onsite domestic wastewater in a poorly drained soil
Observations of the propagation velocity and formation mechanism of burst fractures caused by gunshot
Systolic blood pressure in a population of infants in the first year of life: the Brompton study
Haematological studies in rats fed with metanil yellow
Studies on pasteurellosis. I. A new species of Pasteurella encountered in chronic fowl cholera
Dormancy breaking and germination of Acacia salicina Lindl. seeds
therapy of lupus nephritis. a two-year prospective study

Hind limb movements of the american alligator alligator mississippiensis and postural grades


Hind limb movements of the american alligator alligator mississippiensis and postural grades



Journal of Zoology (London) 224(4): 577-588



ISSN/ISBN: 0952-8369

DOI: 10.1111/j.1469-7998.1991.tb03786.x

The hind limb kinematics of American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) executing the high walk were analysed using cineradiography. The stance phase is characterized by hip extension of 60-80.degree., knee extension of 30-40.degree. and a flexion (30-40.degree.).sbd.extension (80-90.degree.) sequence of the ankle. At initial foot contact with the substratum, the femur is positioned 20-25.degree. from the sagittal plane of the sacrum. During retraction the femur is abducted to a maximum angle of 40-50.degree. near foot lift-off. A slight medial rotation about the femoral axis takes place to maintain the orientation of the femoral condyles. The sacral region undergoes rotation about a vertical axis of 20-30.degree. and transverse roll of 10-12.degree. with each stride. One individual used an atypical limb posture in which the femur was adducted to 20.degree. rather than abducted during the stance phase. Although the crocodilian high walk appears to be a good example of a 'semi-erect' posture that is intermediate between 'sprawling' and 'fully erect', the current system of postural grades hampers our understanding of locomotor variability and diversity. Grades must be considered categorical abstractions until enough data can be acquired to demonstrate that postural divisions are based on well-defined kinematic parameters and functional mechanisms. The indiscriminate use of postural grades, particularly in fossil taxa, blurs differences between members of each grade and artificially broadens distinctions between members of different grades.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 007401189

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

Related references

Differential limb scaling in the american alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) and its implications for archosaur locomotor evolution. Anatomical Record 292(6): 787-797, 2009

Mechanics of limb bone loading during terrestrial locomotion in the green iguana (Iguana iguana) and American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Journal of Experimental Biology 204(Pt 6): 1099-1122, 2001

Developmental effects of embryonic exposure to toxaphene in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Toxicology and Pharmacology: Cbp 138(1): 81-87, 2004

Effects of bacterial lipopolysachharide on peripheral leukocytes in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Veterinary immunology and immunopathology 111(3-4): 315-320, 2006

Observations on the role of the american alligator alligator mississippiensis in the southern florida usa wetlands. Copeia 4: 993-996, 1974

Observations on territoriality in alligator mississippiensis the american alligator and other points concerning its habits and conservation. Gulf Research Reports 6(1): 79-81, 1977

Ultrastructure of spermiogenesis in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis (Reptilia, Crocodylia, Alligatoridae). Journal of morphology 271(10): 1260-1271, 2010

Motor control of locomotor hindlimb posture in the American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis). Journal of Experimental Biology 206(Pt 23): 4327-4340, 2003

Second hatching of the American alligator Alligator mississippiensis at the Australian Reptile Park, Gosford. International Zoo Yearbook 21: 76-77, 1981

Night counts as an index of american alligator alligator mississippiensis population trends. Wildlife Society Bulletin 13(3): 262-272, 1985

Terrestrial locomotion does not constrain venous return in the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis. Journal of experimental biology 208(Pt 17): 3331-3339, 2005

Seasonal variation of the oviduct of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis (Reptilia: Crocodylia). Journal of morphology 270(6): 702-713, 2009

Observations on the parasite fauna of the american alligator alligator mississippiensis in south carolina usa. ASB Bulletin 24(2): 57, 1977

Growth and exercise endurance of American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) with and without cardiac shunt. 2007

Changes in cardiovascular control mechanisms during the embryonic development of the American alligator, Alligator mississippiensis. American Zoologist 40(6): 985, 2000