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Increase of cultural efficiency and genetic variability of anther derived plant in rice oryza sativa l. anther culture

Increase of cultural efficiency and genetic variability of anther derived plant in rice oryza sativa l. anther culture

Research Reports of the Rural Development Administration (Suweon) 30(1 BIOTECHNOL): 1-20

The present studies were focused on the increase of cultural efficieny in vitro and genetic variability of anther-derived plants to obtain the basic information for rice breeding through anther culture. The salient findings obtained are summarized as follows: The frequency of plant differentiation from callus grown on N6 basic medium with 2.0 mg/l NAA and 1.0 mg/l kinetin was higher than those of N6 basic medium with 2.0 mg/l 2,4-D alone regardless of the type of plant differentiation medium. The best callus age for more green plant as about 11-20 days after callus formation. The frequency of albino increased from callus grown above 30 days after callus formation. Rice anthers pretreated for 15 days at 10.degree.C showed higher cultural efficiency than other treatment temperature and periods. Genotypic difference in the frequency of callus formation was also recognized under cold pretreatment for 15 dyas at 10.degree.C. The effect of cold treatment compared with control was sharply increased about 8 fold in Milyang 23, Tongil type, especially. Difference in the frequency of callus formation was not recognized depending on the reciprocal cross between Nagdongbyeo, Japonica type and Milyang 23, Tongil type. Most of Japonica type varieties in the cultural efficieny had a better response than those of Indica or Tongil type varieties. The frequency of albino to green plant was also clearly recognized, depending on genotype used for crosses: IR50/Milyang 23 for 167%, Milyang 23/Sinseonchalbyeo for 115%, and Milyang 74/Dashukei 2 for 34%. Although the ratio of haploid to diploid was various according to F1 hybrids, more haploids in Tongil/Japonica F1 hybrids were differentiated than that of Japonica/Japonica F1 hybrids in average. Ploidy level of anther-derived plants practically could be distinguished depend on the difference in morphological characters. The frequency of haploid to total anther-derived plants distinctly increased derived from anthers cold-pretreated for 15 days at 10.degree.C. Autodiploidization ratio by tiller separation was 4.1%, but that of 0.2% colchicine for 2 days was 24.4% under field condition. The feature of diploidization can be derived into 2 categories; panicles similar to diploid and spikelets similar to haploid. Uniformity of 322 anther-derived A2 lines can be demonstrated by the investigation of coefficient of variability in culm length. Neither notable variation nor degeneration events occurred with increasing generation in 5 anther-derived homogeneous A2 lines was wider than that of original variety in 4 major characters. Phenotypic patterns of 147 anther-derived A2 lines showed that almost all of the A2 lines, 91.8%, were nearly same to parental variety, but 7.5% of A2 lines had changed form without segregation. Only a A2 line segregated within line in various characters. It considered that some extent of androgenic somoclonal variation occurred in vitro. The segregation and recombination of major agronomic characters such as days to heading, panicle length, and panicles per plant both in 175 anther derived A2 lines and 594 F2 plants derived from Milyang 74/Dashukei 2 F1 hybrids presented normal distribution curves and referred to the inheritance of quantitative characters controlled by multiple genes. The ratio of tall plants to those of short was 3:1 in F2, and 1:1 in 175 anther derived A2 lines. The characteristics of short culm of Milyang 74 was controlled by a recessive gene. Expression of gene recombinants to culm length of 48 anther-derived A2 lines from Singwangbyeo/Eunhabyeo F1 hybrids showed similar to those of 406 F2 plants, although average culm length in A2 population was shorter than that of F2 population. The segregation and recombination of fertiliy in 71 anther-derived A2 lines from Milyang 62/Akibare F1 hybrids as remote cross showed clearly different from those of 578 F2 plants. The curve of A2 population appeared more centered, and tilted to higher fertility. This tendency also appeared both in 48 anther-derived A2 lines and 406 plants from Singwangbyeo/Eunhabyeo.

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