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Investigation of the origin of the impedance cardiogram by means of exchange transfusion with stroma free haemoglobin solution in the dog


Investigation of the origin of the impedance cardiogram by means of exchange transfusion with stroma free haemoglobin solution in the dog



Cardiovascular Research 24(1): 24-32



ISSN/ISBN: 0008-6363

PMID: 2328511

DOI: 10.1093/cvr/24.1.24

To determine the contribution of variations in orientation of erythrocytes (orientation effect) to the heart synchronous variations in thoracic impedance in impedance cardiography. The blood of four dogs was gradually replaced by stroma free haemoglobin solution, causing a decrease in resistivity and orientation effect. The decrease in orientation effect was used to determine the contribution of the orientation effect using an extended form of the "parallel conductor" model of the thorax (parallel connection of a tissue admittance Yt and a blood conductance Gb). Four adult splenectomised mongrel dogs. Packed cell volume and resistivity at body temperature of every volume of circulating fluid removed was measured. Real and imaginary parts of the transthoracic impedance and the modulus of the heart synchronous impedance variations were measured just before each exchange. The parallel conductor model was extended to account for the influence on Gb of packed cell volume and orientation of erythrocytes. Applying this extended model, the average variations, in Gb at a packed cell volume of 40% were estimated to be 7.46%: 3.03% due to volume variations, 4.43% due to orientation effect. After further extending the model to account for the influence of small changes in blood pressure and heart rate, the average volume variations were estimated to range from 2.8% to 3.3% and the average orientation effect from 4.1% to 4.7% at a packed cell volume of 40%. Resistivity of the blood is far from constant and the contributions of variations in blood conductivity and volume to the heart synchronous thoracic impedance are of comparable magnitude. The contributions of the volume variations is the sum of the volume variations in the contributing intrathoracic vessels. The effects of variations in orientation are added up in proportion to the relative volumes of the contributing vessels. The extensions of the parallel conductor model brought out all physiological factors determining the heart synchronous thoracic impedance variations: pulse pressures and flows, mean pressures and flows, compliances of all contributing blood vessels, packed cell volume and heart rate, as well as the relevant properties of blood: the relations between volume, flow and orientation effect and the change in orientation effect during decelerating flow.

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