EurekaMag.com logo
+ Site Statistics
References:
53,869,633
Abstracts:
29,686,251
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
EurekaMag Most Shared ContentMost Shared
EurekaMag PDF Full Text ContentPDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full TextRequest PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedInFollow on LinkedIn

+ Translate

Naloxone does not alter the perception of pain induced by electrical and thermal stimulation of the skin in healthy humans



Naloxone does not alter the perception of pain induced by electrical and thermal stimulation of the skin in healthy humans



Pain 34(3): 271-276



It has been hypothesized that, in the absence of acute or chronic pain, a tonically active system exists involving opioid peptides, which ensures a certain level of pain insensitiviy. Although various studies have failed to support this concept, it has been reported that in conditions of both experimentally induced and clinical pain, high doses of the opioid antagonist naloxone induced a state of hyperalgesia and thus seemed to set of this hypothetical system. Lower doses were, however, without effect or even acted as analgesics. The study investigated the effect of 5 and 20 mg naloxone i.v., compared to placebo, on the perception of pain in healthy humans. Pain was induced by two methods, using electrical and thermal stimulation of the skin, which have previously been shown to be sensitive to the effects of opioid as well as of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory analgesics. Each of 12 males and 12 females participated in 3 experimental sessions, in which the treatments were administered double-blind according to a Latin square design. Threshold and tolerance to electricity induced pain and threshold to thermally induced pain were measured at 30 min intervals for 90 min before and 90 min after drug administration. Electrical stimuli were square wave constant current impulses of linearly increasing intensity, thermal stimuli were of constant intensity and variable duration. Threshold and tolerance to electrically induced pain were not altered by either dose of naloxone, whereas the threshold to thermally induced pain was significantly higher after both 5 and 20 mg naloxone than after placebo, the effects of the two naloxone doses not differ from each other. Subjects who were relatively pain sensitive did not react differently to the pain stimuli after naloxone administration than did subjects who were relatively pain insensitive. These results, which are consistent with those of previous studies, cast further doubt on the validity of the concept that there is, in the absence of pain, a tonically active system involving endogenous opioids, which ensures a level of pain insensitivity.

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 007582163

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 3186274

DOI: 10.1016/0304-3959(88)90122-4



Related references

Experimental pain induced by electrical and thermal stimulation of the skin in healthy man: sensitivity to 75 and 150 mg diclofenac sodium in comparison with 60 mg codeine and placebo. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 21(1): 35-43, 1986

Experimental pain induced by electrical and thermal stimulation of the skin in healthy man sensitivity to 75 and 150 milligrams of diclofenac sodium in comparison with 60 milligrams of codeine and placebo. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology 21(1): 35-44, 1986

Pain relief by electrical stimulation of the central gray matter in humans and its reversal by naloxone. Science 197(4299): 183-186, 1977

Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation and conditioned pain modulation influence the perception of pain in humans. European Journal of Pain 17(10): 1539-1546, 2014

Pain perception in humans: use of intraepidermal electrical stimulation. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry 83(5): 551-556, 2012

Naloxone does not affect pain relief induced by electrical stimulation in man. Pain 17(2): 189-196, 1983

Reproducibility of pain perception threshold using electrical-, thermal- and pressure-induced experimental pain in volunteers. Pain Clinic 6(2): 97-101, 1993

Effect of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on pain perception threshold and pain tolerance level of human teeth subjected to electrical stimulation. Endodontics & Dental Traumatology 2(3): 109-112, 1986

Botulinum toxin A does not alter capsaicin-induced pain perception in human skin. Journal of the Neurological Sciences 260(1-2): 38-42, 2007

Changes in the pain sensitivity of humans on exposure to thermal stimulation of the skin. Biophysics (Engl Transl Biofiz) 16(6): 1085-1090, 1971

Experimentally induced pain: measurement of pain threshold and pain tolerance using a new apparatus for electrical stimulation of the skin. International Journal of Clinical Pharmacology and Biopharmacy 15(2): 51-56, 1977

Naloxone can alter experimental pain and mood in humans. Physiological Psychology 9(3): 245-250, 1981

Perceptual integration of intramuscular electrical stimulation in the focal and the referred pain area in healthy humans. Pain 105(1-2): 125-131, September, 2003

Effect of variation in the burst and carrier frequency modes of neuromuscular electrical stimulation on pain perception of healthy subjects. Physical Therapy 72(11): 800-6; Discussion 807-9, 1992

Endorphins: naloxone fails to alter experimental pain or mood in humans. Science 199(4333): 1093-1095, 1978