# Response surface analysis of the effects of seeding rates nitrogen rates and irrigation frequencies on durum wheat i. grain yield and yield components

##### Puri, Y.P.; Miller, M.F.; Sah, R.N.; Baghott, K.G.; Freres-Castel, E.; Meyer, R.D.

#### Fertilizer Research 17(3): 197-218

#### 1988

Accession: 007751863

Interactive effects of nitrogen (N) rates, seeding (S) rates and irrigation frequencies on grain yield and yield components of durum wheat were studied for four years under field conditions at Tulelake, California. Each year the experiment was conducted using a split-plot design with 4 irrigation frequencies as main plots and combinations of 5 N-rates (0 to 360 kg/ha) and 5 S-rates (50 to 250 kg/ha) as subplot treatments replicated 4 times. A quadratic response surface model (RSM) was used to study the effects of these treatments on grain yield and yield components (tillers/area, kernel number/spike, kernel weight/spike and 100-seed weight). The RSM was very effective for analysis and data reduction for estimating the optimum combinations of N and S for maximizing the grain yield and yield components. The N utilization and uptake efficiency increased with each irrigation treatment and peaked at irrigation treatment C. Both N and uptake utilization efficiency decreased with each increment of N-rate. In most cases, the effect of irrigation was independent of N and S. One irrigation at tillering increased grain yield and yield components significantly over only a preplant irrigation. The response of additional irrigations were comparatively small and significant only in some cases. Both N and S had significant effects on grain yield and yield components, however, the response of N was larger than that of S. With increasing N-rate, grain yield and tiller number increased with the expected peak beyond 360 kg N ha-1 but the increments beyond 180 kg N ha-1 were of progressively smaller magnitude. The kernel number and kernel weight per spike also increased with N-rate giving a peak between 270 and 360 kg N ha-1. With increasing S grain yield and tiller number/area increased while kernel number and kernel weight per spike decreased progressively. It was impossible to maximize yield and yield components at a given combination of N, S, and irrigation. According to the model, grain yield and tiller number were maximized at the highest level of N and S, while kernel number and kernel weight/spike were maximized at the lowest S (50 kg ha-1) and about 314 kg N ha-1 under adequate water supply. On the basis of the findings of this study and output of the model, 180-360 kg N ha-1, 150-250 kg S ha-1 and two post-sowing irrigation (at tillering and at boot stage) in addition to a preplant irrigation was recommended for optimum yield. An additional irrigation might be required depending on the weather conditions during the grain filling period.