+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
EurekaMag Most Shared ContentMost Shared
EurekaMag PDF Full Text ContentPDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full TextRequest PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedInFollow on LinkedIn

+ Translate

Stereoscopic mechanisms in monkey visual cortex: binocular correlation and disparity selectivity

Stereoscopic mechanisms in monkey visual cortex: binocular correlation and disparity selectivity

Journal of Neuroscience 8(12): 4531-4550

The neural signals in visual cortex associated with positional disparity and contrast texture correlation of binocular images are the subject of this study. We have analyzed the effects of stereoscopically presented luminous bars and of dynamic random-dot patterns on the activity of single neurons in cortical visual areas V1, V2, and V3-V3A of the alert, visually trained rhesus macaque. The interpretation of the results and considerations of possible neural mechanisms led us to recognize 2 functional sets of stereoscopic neurons. (1) A set of neurons, tuned excitatory (T0) or tuned inhibitory (TI), which respond sharply to images of zero or near-zero disparity. Objects at or about the horopter drive the T0 neurons and suppress the TI, while objects nearer and farther have the opposite effects on each type, inhibition of the T0 and excitation of the TI. The activity of these neurons may provide, in a reciprocal way, the definition of the plane of fixation, and the basic reference for binocular single vision and depth discrimination. (2) A second set of neurons includes tuned excitatory at larger crossed or uncrossed disparities (TN/TF) and neurons with reciprocal excitatory and inhibitory disparity sensitivity with cross-over at the horopter (NE/FA). Binocularly uncorrelated image contrast drives these neurons to a maintained level of activity, which shifts, in response to correlated images, toward facilitation or suppression as a function of positional disparity. These neurons may operate in the neural processing leading to stereopsis, both coarse and fine, and also provide signals for the system controlling binocular vergence. These results indicate that cortical visual neurons are binocularly linked to respond to the relative position and contrast of the images over their receptive fields, and also that both these aspects of binocular stimulation may be utilized by the brain as a source of stereoscopic information.

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 007818816

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 3199191

DOI: 10.1523/jneurosci.08-12-04531.1988

Related references

Binocular integration and disparity selectivity in mouse primary visual cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 109(12): 3013-3024, 2014

Testing quantitative models of binocular disparity selectivity in primary visual cortex. Journal of Neurophysiology 90(5): 2795-2817, 2003

Effects of generalized pooling on binocular disparity selectivity of neurons in the early visual cortex. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences 371(1697): -, 2017

Binocular interaction and sensitivity to horizontal disparity in visual cortex in the awake monkey. International Journal of Neuroscience 107(3-4): 147-160, 2001

Selectivity in surface orientation of binocular visual neurons in the monkey parietal cortex. Nichidai Igaku Zasshi 55(5): 316-323, 1996

Neuronal mechanisms underlying stereopsis: how do simple cells in the visual cortex encode binocular disparity?. Perception 24(1): 3-31, 1995

Functional properties of neurons in middle temporal visual area of the macaque monkey. II. Binocular interactions and sensitivity to binocular disparity. Journal of Neurophysiology 49(5): 1148-1167, 1983

Selectivity for 3-D shape characteristics defined by stereoscopic disparity in macaque visual area V4. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 27(1): 432, 2001

How configurations of binocular disparity determine whether stereoscopic slant or stereoscopic occlusion is seen. Perception 34(9): 1083-1094, 2005

Experimental determination of the range of binocular disparity for which stereoscopic fusion occurs at a viewing distance of 2.5m for a stereoscopic TV. Journal of the Society for Information Display 21(7): 317-323, 2013

Stereoscopic vision in macaque monkey. Cells sensitive to binocular depth in area 18 of the macaque monkey cortex. Nature 225(5227): 41-42, 1970

Microstimulation effects in visual area MT depend on selectivity for binocular disparity. Society for Neuroscience Abstracts 23(1-2): 1125, 1997

Architecture of binocular disparity processing in monkey inferior temporal cortex. Neuroscience Research 48(2): 155-167, 2004

Tuning for binocular disparity in cat visual cortex. Neuroscience 22(SUPPL): S436, 1987

Binocular disparity sensitivity of 3D orientation selective neuron of the monkey parietal cortex. Nichidai Igaku Zasshi 53(12): 934-944, 1994