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Structure and dynamic of a natterjack toad metapopulation bufo calamita


Structure and dynamic of a natterjack toad metapopulation bufo calamita



Oecologia (Berlin) 90(4): 489-499



ISSN/ISBN: 0029-8549

DOI: 10.1007/bf01875442

The migratory and reproductive behaviour of Bufo calamita was studied at four neighbouring breeding sites in the northern Rhineland, Germany, from 1986 to 1991. Radio telementry and marking systems based on toe-clipping and on microchips were used to follow the tracks of toads and for individual recognition. Emphasis lay on estimates of (1) the exchange of reproductive individuals between neighbouring sites, and (2) the reproductive success at each site. Allozyme electrophoresis served to assess the genetic diversity of local populations. More than 90% of all reproductive males showed a lifelong fidelity to the site of first breeding, whereas females did not prefer certain breeding sites. Due to the female-biased exchange of individuals among neighbouring sites the genetic distance between local populations was generally low but increased with geographical distance. This pattern of spatial relations is consistent with the structure of a metapopulation. Moreover, up to three mass immigrations of males per breeding period, replacing previously reproductive individuals, suggested the existence of temporal populations successively reproducing at the same locality. Genetic distances were considerably greater between temporal populations than between local ones, indicating partial reproductive isolation. In fact, an exchange of reproductive individuals between the temporal populations at each site was not detected, but gene flow due to the recruitment of first-breeders originating from offspring other than their own seems probable. Thus, natterjack metapopulations consist of interacting local and temporal populations. The reproductive success differed considerably among the four sites and also between the temporal populations. Three out of four local populations had low reproductive success as well as the latest temporal population. The persistence of these populations dependend entirely on the recruitment of juveniles from the only self-sustaining local population. This "rescue-effect" impeded local extinction. The discussion on the modifications required to fit the classical metapopulation concept to the empirical findings and their consequences for the dynamics of amphibian metapopulations.

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Accession: 007826374

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