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Trypanothione reductase from Trypanosoma cruzi. Catalytic properties of the enzyme and inhibition studies with trypanocidal compounds



Trypanothione reductase from Trypanosoma cruzi. Catalytic properties of the enzyme and inhibition studies with trypanocidal compounds



European Journal of Biochemistry 180(2): 267-272



Trypanothione reductase of Trypanosoma cruzi is a key enzyme in the antioxidant metabolism of the parasite. Here we report on the enzymic and pharmacological properties of trypanothione reductase using glutathionylspermidine disulfide as a substrate. 1. Both pH optimum (7.5) and the ionic strength optimum (at 30 mM) are unusually narrow for this enzyme. 40 mM Hepes, 1 mM EDTA, pH 7.5 was chosen as a standard assay buffer because in this system the kcat/Km ratio had the highest values for both natural substrates, glutathionylspermidine disulfide (2.65 x 10(6) M-1 s-1) and trypanothione disulfide (4.63 x 10(6) M-1 s-1). 2. Using the standardized assay, trypanothione reductase and the phylogenetically related host enzyme, human glutathione reductase, were studied as targets of inhibitors. Both enzymes, in their NADPH-reduced forms, were irreversibly modified by the cytostatic agent, 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). Nifurtimox, the drug used in the treatment of Chagas' disease, is a stronger inhibitor of glutathione reductase (Ki = 40 microM) than of trypanothione reductase (IC50 = 200 microM). 3. Of the newly synthesized trypanocidal compounds [Henderson, G. B., Ulrich, P., Fairlamb, A. H., Rosenberg, I., Pereira, M., Sela, M. & Cerami, A. (1988) Proc. Natl Acad. Sci., 85, 5374-5378] a nitrofuran derivative, 2-(5-nitro-2-furanylmethylidene)-N,N'-[1,4-piperazinediylbis (1,3-propanediyl)]bishydrazinecarboximidamide tetrahydrobromide, was found to be a better inhibitor for trypanothione reductase (Ki = 0.5 microM) than for glutathione reductase (IC50 = 10 microM). A naphthoquinone derivative, 2,3-bis[3-(2-amidinohydrazono)-butyl]-1,4-naphthoquinone dihydrochloride, turned out to be both an inhibitor (IC50 = 1 microM) and an NADPH-oxidation-inducing substrate (Km = 14 microM). This effect was not observed with human glutathione reductase. Such compounds which lead to oxidative stress by more than one mechanism in the parasite are promising starting points for drug design based on the three-dimensional structures of glutathione and trypanothione reductases.

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Accession: 007970627

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 2647489

DOI: 10.1111/j.1432-1033.1989.tb14643.x


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