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1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine as a substrate of cytochrome P450 2D6: allosteric effects of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase



1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine as a substrate of cytochrome P450 2D6: allosteric effects of NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase



Biochemistry 36(15): 4461-4470



1-Methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP), a neurotoxin that produces Parkinsonism symptoms in man, has been examined as a substrate of recombinant human cytochrome P450 2D6. When cumene hydroperoxide is used as an oxygen and electron donor, a single product is formed, identified as 4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. The K(m) for formation of this product (130 microM) is in agreement with the dissociation constants for MPTP binding to the enzyme determined by optical and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. When the reaction is carried out with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (reduced) (NADPH) and recombinant human NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase, a second product, identified as 1-methyl-4-(4'-hydroxyphenyl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, is formed in addition to 4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine. The K(m) values for formation of these two products are 19 microM and 120 microM, respectively. Paramagnetic relaxation experiments have been used to measure distances between the protons of bound MPTP and the heme iron, and these have been used to construct models for the position and orientation of MPTP in the active site. For the cytochrome alone, a single mode of binding was observed, with the N-methyl close to the heme iron in a position appropriate for the observed N-demethylation reaction. In the presence of the reductase, the data were not consistent with a single mode of binding but could be explained by the existence of two alternative orientations of MPTP in the active site. One of these, characterized by a dissociation constant of 150 microM, is essentially identical to that observed in the absence of the reductase. In the second, which has a K(d) of 25 microM, the MPTP is oriented so that the aromatic ring is close to the heme iron, in a position appropriate for p-hydroxylation leading to the formation of the product seen only in the presence of the reductase. In the case of codeine, another substrate for cytochrome P450 2D6, the addition of reductase had no effect on the nature of the product formed, the dissociation constant, or the orientation in the binding site. These observations show that NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase has an allosteric effect on the active site of cytochrome P450 2D6 that affects the binding of some substrates but not others.

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Accession: 008012571

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PMID: 9109653

DOI: 10.1021/bi962633p


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