Aprotinin decreases blood loss and homologous transfusions in patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery
Capdevila, X.; Calvet, Y.; Biboulet, P.; Biron, C.; Rubenovitch, J.; d'Athis, F.
Anesthesiology 88(1): 50-57
ISSN/ISBN: 0003-3022 PMID: 9447855 DOI: 10.1097/00000542-199801000-00010
Background: Major orthopedic surgery can be associated with dramatic blood loss, thereby requiring high-volume homologous transfusions in patients unable to benefit from blood salvage techniques. The effect of aprotinin on blood loss and transfusion requirements during orthopedic surgery for either the resection of malignancies of the removal of infected hardware was prospectively studied. Methods: Twenty-three patients scheduled for orthopedic surgery of the hip, femur, or pelvis for sepsis or malignant tumors, all under general anesthesia, were randomly allocated to receive during operation, in a blinded manner, either aprotinin administered as a bolus of 1.106 kallikrein inactivation units (KIU) followed by an infusion of 5X105 KIU/h, or the equivalent volume of saline. The anesthesia and perioperative management, as well as the designated transfusion criteria, were standardized. The total blood loss of each patient was evaluated using intraoperative suction losses, sponge weights, and postoperative volumetric drainage. Homologous transfusion requirements were noted. Hemoglobin and hematocrit measures, as well as coagulation and fibrinolytic pathway explorations, were performed before and after surgery. Deep venous thrombosis prophylaxis was applied, and the incidence of this complication was assessed. Results: Twelve patients received aprotinin. Aprotinin reduced the total blood loss from a median of 5,305 ml (range, 3,000-9,770 ml) to a median of 1,783 ml (range, 1,140-4,955 ml; P<0.05). A blood loss reduction of 56% during surgery and 68% on discharge from the postanesthesia care unit was observed. Seven units (range, 4-16) of packed erythrocytes were transfused per patient in the placebo group, and 3 (range, 2-5) were transfused in the aprotinin group (P<0.05). In the aprotinin group, platelet counts were higher, and postoperative prothrombin times and D. Dimer values were lower. The activated partial thromboplastin time values showed no significant difference between the two groups. No side effects were observed in the aprotinin group. A deep venous thrombosis developed in one patient in the placebo group. Conclusion: Aprotinin treatment during major orthopedic surgery significantly reduces both blood loss and consequent homologous blood transfusion requirements.