+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Blood lead levels in pregnant women of high and low socioeconomic status in Mexico City

Blood lead levels in pregnant women of high and low socioeconomic status in Mexico City

Environmental Health Perspectives. 104(10): 1070-1074

This study examined the determinants of blood lead (BPb) in 513 pregnant women in Mexico City: 311 from public hospital prenatal clinics, representing primarily women of low socioeconomic status (SES), and 202 from private hospitals, primarily women of high SES. Overall, BPb levels ranged from 1.38 to 29 micrograms/dl, with geometric means of 6.7 and 11.12 micrograms/dl for women from private and public hospitals, respectively. The crude geometric means difference obtained by t-test was 4.42 (p < 0.001). BPb was measured from January 1994 to August 1995 and showed higher levels during fall and winter and lower levels during spring and summer. The main BPb determinants were the use of lead-glazed ceramics in women from public hospitals and season of the year in women from private hospitals. Consumption of tortillas (corn bread rich in calcium) decreased BPb levels in the lower SES group, but the relationship was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Consumption of milk products significantly (p < 0.05) reduced BPb levels in the higher SES group. In 112 women whose diets were deficient in calcium, taking calcium supplements lowered their blood lead levels about 7 micrograms/dl. A predictive model fitted to these data, using the strongest predictors plus gestational age, showed a difference of 14 micrograms/dl between the best and worst scenarios in women from public hospitals. Avoiding use of lead-glazed ceramics, consuming diets rich in calcium, and, if needed, taking calcium supplements, would be expected to result in substantial lowering of BPb, especially in pregnant women of low socioeconomic status.

Please choose payment method:

(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 008237489

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 8930548

DOI: 10.2307/3433119

Related references

Determinants of blood lead levels in a random sample of women in mexico city mexico. Archives of Environmental Health 46(3): 186-187, 1991

Prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in inner-city pregnant women. Pediatric Research 43(4 PART 2): 118A, April, 1998

Blood lead levels and risk factors in pregnant women from Durango, Mexico. Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health 66(2): 107-113, 2014

Association of blood lead levels with methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase polymorphisms among Chinese pregnant women in Wuhan city. Plos One 10(2): E0117366-E0117366, 2015

Risk factors for high levels of lead in blood of schoolchildren in Mexico City. Archives of Environmental Health 51(2): 122-126, 1996

Dietary and environmental determinants of blood and bone lead levels in lactating postpartum women living in Mexico City. Environmental Health Perspectives 104(10): 1076-1082, 1996

Influence of lead on pregnant women in metropolitan Mexico City. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology 50(4): 533-539, 1993

Elevated blood lead levels in pregnant women: identification of a high-risk population and interventions. Journal of Perinatal Medicine 35(6): 492-496, 2007

Environmental urban lead exposure and blood lead levels in children of Mexico City. Environmental Health Perspectives. 103(11): 1036-1040, 1995

Lead in candy consumed and blood lead levels of children living in Mexico City. Environmental Research 147(): 497-502, 2016

Lead-glazed ceramic ware and blood lead levels of children in the city of Oaxaca, Mexico. Archives of Environmental Health 55(3): 217-222, 2000

Lead levels in pregnant women and newborns in la Oroya City, Peru. Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental Y Salud Publica 30(3): 393-398, 2014

Mercury levels in pregnant women, children, and seafood from Mexico City. Environmental Research 135(): 63-69, 2015

Urinary and plasma fluoride levels in pregnant women from Mexico City. Environmental Research 150: 489-495, 2017

Determinants of lead levels in lactating women in Mexico City. FASEB Journal 9(4): A761, 1995