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Cell wall expansion in the marine coenocytic green algae, Chaetomorpha and Boergesenia



Cell wall expansion in the marine coenocytic green algae, Chaetomorpha and Boergesenia



Botanica: 21-30



For clarification of the mechanism of cell wall expansion in marine coenocytic green algae, the ultrastructure of growing cell walls in Boergesenia forbesii (Harvey) Feldmann and Chaetomorpha moniligera Kjellman were examined by electron microscopy, and wall enzymes in the growing walls were compared with those in nongrowing walls. Actively growing B. forbesii, with helicoidal walls and dispersed growth released more cytoplasmic vesicles around the cortical cytoplasm and cell walls than non-growing cells. In C. moniligera cells, whose walls show crisscross fibrillar textures and elongation growth, cytoplasmic vesicles increased in number around the cortical cytoplasm and cell dispersion occurred following treatment with 3 mu-M amiprophos-methyl (APM) for 15 min-3 d. Vesicles also increased after treatment with 1 mM colchicine for 1-3 d and remarkable cell dispersion occurred. The vesicles were essentially the same size. They were distributed as solitary, aggregated or multivesicular-like forms and some appeared to fuse with the plasma membrane while others were observed in the cell wall. When the cells of C. moniligera were dispersed by treatment with APM, cortical microtubules (MTs) completely disappeared and the microfibril orientation became helicoidal. In those treated with colchicine, neither cortical MT nor microfibril orientations manifested any evident change. It thus follows that wall expansion in coenocytic green algae may have no involvement with cortical MTs or microfibril orientation, but these are essential for the loosening of matrix polysaccharides in the cell wall. This loosening may be possibly related to cytoplasmic vesicles. Eight proteins were detected in the cell wall of plasmolyzed B. forbesii whose growth was inactive. Eleven more proteins were obtained from cells made to disperse by treatment with colchicine for 3 d. Colchicine would thus appear to induce the formation of the enzymes essential for wall loosening via cytoplasmic vesicles in cell walls.

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Accession: 008274134

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DOI: 10.1515/botm.1995.38.1-6.21



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