+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Detection of bread wheat farina adulterant in durum wheat semolina and pasta dried at low, high, and ultra-high temperatures



Detection of bread wheat farina adulterant in durum wheat semolina and pasta dried at low, high, and ultra-high temperatures



Cereal Chemistry 70(4): 405-411



Methods were developed to detect adulteration in durum wheat pasta by bread wheat farina. Adulteration can be detected when sterol palmitates (campesterol and beta-sitosterol) are found in farina but not in semolina, as has been reported for wheats grown in the United States. A new method using reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) was developed to measure sterol palmitates. The sterol palmitates in farina adulterant become chemically bound during pasta making. They are found in low amounts in petroleum ether extracts previously used to determine adulteration of semolina. Three polar solvents (chloroform-methanol, chloroform-methanol-water (C-M-W), and water-saturated n-butanol) extracted the bound sterol palmitates from pasta. Only the extracts with C-M-W proved to be satisfactory for measuring sterol palmitates by gas chromatography (GC) or RP-HPLC. Adulterated pasta samples (0-100% farina), dried at low, high, and ultra-high temperatures, were prepared for testing the adulteration methods. Sterol palmitate content in the pasta samples was determined in C-M-W extracts using the new RP-HPLC method and the GC method of Hseih et al (1981). Adulteration levels down to about 3% were detected in our pasta test samples made with U.S. wheat varieties. In farina from 97 bread wheat varieties, six soft cake wheat varieties currently grown in the U.S. and Canada, and two soft wheat varieties from Italy, sterol palmitate content varied from 17 to 44 mg/100-g sample; that of farina from the Canadian variety Glenlea was 8.9 mg/100-g sample. In semolina from 40 durum wheat varieties (29 from the U.S. and Canada, five from Mexico, and six from Italy), sterol palmitate content varied from 0 to 0.7 mg/100-g sample. Thus, our results confirm the observations of earlier workers that analysis for sterol palmitate content can be used to detect adulteration in pasta made from U.S. wheats.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 1 workday: $29.90)

Accession: 008438820

Download citation: RISBibTeXText


Related references

The use of reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography to detect common wheat (Triticum aestivum) adulteration of durum wheat (Triticum durum) pasta products dried at low and high temperatures. Journal of Cereal Science 20(3): 245-252, 1994

Bread wheat adulteration of durum wheat pasta improved methods for determining adulteration in low high and ultrahigh temperature dried pasta. Cereal Foods World 37(7): 552, 1992

Hydration and physical properties of vacuum-dried durum wheat semolina pasta with high-fiber oat powder. Lebensmittel-Wissenschaft Und-Technologie / Food Science and Technology 63(1): 647-653, 2015

Nir method for the measurement of bread wheat farina adulterated in durum wheat pasta. Cereal Foods World 36(8): 699-700, 1991

Effect of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var. durum) semolina extraction rate on semolina refinement, strength indicators and pasta properties. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 84(4): 1001-1013, 2004

Detection of soft wheat in semolina and durum wheat bread by analysis of DNA microsatellites. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 55(9): 3312-3318, 2007

Detection of common-wheat flour in Durum-wheat semolina by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography of specific albumins. Food Chemistry 51(3): 325-329, 1994

Bread wheat adulteration in durum wheat pasta Detection by near infrared methods. Cereal Foods World 38(8): 631, 1993

Single Marker and Haplotype-Based Association Analysis of Semolina and Pasta Colour in Elite Durum Wheat Breeding Lines Using a High-Density Consensus Map. Plos one 12(1): E0170941, 2017

Soft wheat detection in durum wheat meal and dried pasta by analysing the lipidic fraction and the steryl esters. Tecnica Molitoria 56(3): 227-248, 256, 2005

Single Marker and Haplotype-Based Association Analysis of Semolina and Pasta Colour in Elite Durum Wheat Breeding Lines Using a High-Density Consensus Map (vol 12, e0170941, 2017). PLoS ONE 12(10): e0187178, 2017

Estimation of adulteration of durum wheat semolina and pasta with common wheat by quantitative RP-HPLC analysis of HMW glutenin. Cereal Foods World 38(8): 631, 1993

Stress-relaxation properties of mixograph semolina-water doughs from durum wheat cultivars of variable strength in relation to mixing characteristics, bread- and pasta-making performance. Journal of cereal science 34(2): 215-232, 2001

Nutrient composition of semolina of different grades of dicoccum wheat varieties in comparison with durum and bread wheat. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences 15(4): 753-755, 2002

Evaluation of durum wheat semolina and pasta in the usa. Fabriani, G And C Lintas (Ed ) Durum Wheat: Chemistry And Technology Xiii+332p American Association Of Cereal Chemists, Inc : St Paul, Minnesota, Usa Illus Maps 237-248, 1988