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Determinants of the microbiological water quality of indoor swimming-pools in relation to disinfection


Determinants of the microbiological water quality of indoor swimming-pools in relation to disinfection



Water Research 32(3): 865-871



ISSN/ISBN: 0043-1354

DOI: 10.1016/s0043-1354(97)00290-x

A study of microbiological water quality at 12 indoor swimming-pools was carried out over a three-month period. Chlorination was used as the disinfectant method at seven of them and at the other five electrolytically generated copper and silver ions were used. A regression analysis was used to evaluate the association between variables linked to disinfection and physico-chemical water quality residual free chlorine (HOCl + OCl-), Cu, Ag, pH, conductivity, turbidity-and microbiological water quality-aerobic plate count, total and fecal coliforms, fecal streptococci, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Analysis showed that the sole predictive variable was disinfectant concentration based on the linear model P = a + bX (P = probability that a sample be microbiologically acceptable; a = interception; b = gradient, and X = disinfection concentration). At the chlorinated pools 2.6 mg l-1 of free chlorine (a = 0.34, b = 0.21) was required, and at those using Cu-Ag 3.4 mg l-1 of Cu (a = 0.15, b = 0.22) in order to ensure that there be a 90% probability of the bathing water being microbiologically acceptable. The active chlorine concentration (HOCl) failed to present an association with microbiological water quality.

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