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Dietary fat and colon cancer: modulation of cyclooxygenase-2 by types and amount of dietary fat during the postinitiation stage of colon carcinogenesis



Dietary fat and colon cancer: modulation of cyclooxygenase-2 by types and amount of dietary fat during the postinitiation stage of colon carcinogenesis



Cancer Research 57(16): 3465-3470



Several epidemiological and experimental studies have indicated a strong relationship between different types of dietary fats and risk of colon cancer. However, the modulating effects of these nutritional factors at the molecular level are not fully elucidated. It has been documented that the modulation of tumorigenesis is associated with changes in the levels of prostaglandins production. To provide an understanding of the mechanism(s) of dietary fat-induced modulation of colon tumor development, we have analyzed the expression of cyclooxygenase (COX), an enzyme that catalyzes the metabolism of omega-3 and omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids in a critical step in prostaglandin biosynthesis. Male F344 rats were fed the semipurified AIN-76A diet containing low-fat corn oil and were s.c. injected azoxymethane (AOM) dissolved in normal saline at a dose rate of 15 mg/kg of body weight, once weekly, for 2 weeks. Vehicle controls received s.c. equal volumes of normal saline. One day after the second AOM or saline injection, rats intended to receive experimental diets were provided high-fat corn oil (HFCO) or high-fat fish oil (HFFO) mixed in semipurified AIN-76A diet, and the remaining rats continued to receive the low-fat corn oil diet. Animals were sacrificed 1, 12, or 36 weeks after the last AOM or saline injection, and their colonic mucosa, as well as the grossly visible colon tumors from rats sacrificed 36 weeks after the last AOM injection, were analyzed for the expression levels of COX-1 and COX-2. The results indicate that AOM induced increasingly high levels of COX-2 expression with advancing stages of colon tumorigenesis. HFCO further enhanced the AOM-induced COX-2 expression. In contrast, HFFO ingestion resulted in a significant decrease in COX-2 expression both in the colonic mucosa and in tumors. These results correlate with increased incidence and multiplicity of grossly visible colon tumors in AOM-treated animals that were fed the HFCO diet versus decreased tumor incidence and lower tumor multiplicity in animals that were fed the HFFO diet. No significant differences were observed in expression levels of COX-1. The data suggest that HFCO may promote colon tumorigenesis by up-regulating the COX-2 expression, whereas HFFO may exert its antitumor effect by inhibiting the COX-2 expression.

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Accession: 008464366

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PMID: 9270014



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