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Effects of divided attention on encoding and retrieval processes in human memory: further support for an asymmetry



Effects of divided attention on encoding and retrieval processes in human memory: further support for an asymmetry



Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition 24(5): 1091-1104



Despite a tradition in cognitive psychology that views encoding and retrieval processes in human memory as being similar, F. 1. M. Craik, R. Govoni, M. Naveh-Benjamin and N. D. Anderson (1996) have recently shown that notable differences exist between the 2 when divided-attention manipulations are used. In this article, the authors further examined this asymmetry by using several manipulations that changed task demands at encoding and retrieval. The authors also used a secondary-task methodology that allowed a microlevel analysis of the secondary-task costs associated with encoding and retrieval. The results illustrated the resiliency of retrieval processes to manipulations involving different task demands. They also indicated different loci of attention demands at encoding and retrieval. The authors contend that whereas encoding processes are controlled, retrieval processes are obligatory but do require attentional resources for their execution.

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Accession: 008565194

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 9747524

DOI: 10.1037/0278-7393.24.5.1091


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