+ Site Statistics
+ Search Articles
+ PDF Full Text Service
How our service works
Request PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on Facebook
Follow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedIn
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
Most Shared
PDF Full Text
+ Translate
+ Recently Requested

Effects of subchronic exposure to Caramel Colour III on the immune system in mice



Effects of subchronic exposure to Caramel Colour III on the immune system in mice



Food and Chemical Toxicology 32(1): 7-13



Administration of Caramel Colour III is associated with lymphopenia in laboratory animals, especially if the animals are fed a vitamin B-6-deficient diet. Recently, functional immunological alterations in rats exposed to Caramel Colour III have been reported. The component of Caramel Colour III that is responsible for the immunological effects has been shown to be 2-acetyl-4-tetrahydroxybutyl imidazole (THI). In the present study, female Balb/c mice fed a diet with a relatively high vitamin B-6 content were exposed to 2 or 10% of a commercial Caramel Colour III preparation with a low THI content (less than 25 ppm) in the drinking water for 9 wk. Although this treatment did not induce a lymphopenia in the exposed mice, flow cytometric analysis of lymphocyte subpopulations demonstrated reductions in the CD4+ and CD8+ cell populations. In addition, the proliferative response of spleen cells to B and T cell mitogens was significantly reduced in the mice exposed to 2% Caramel Colour III. No changes were observed in natural killer cell activity or in the humoral antibody response to a viral antigen. The results indicate that Caramel Colour III tht meets the specified limit of less than 25 mg TH/kg may, nevertheless, interfere with the lymphoid system in mice with an adequate vitamin B-6 status.

Please choose payment method:






(PDF emailed within 0-6 h: $19.90)

Accession: 008582215

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 8132168

DOI: 10.1016/0278-6915(84)90030-9


Related references

Effects of the colour additive caramel colour III on the immune system: a study with human volunteers. Food and Chemical Toxicology 30(9): 749-757, 1992

The effects of orthophenylphenol, tris(2,3-dichloropropyl) phosphate, and cyclophosphamide on the immune system and host susceptibility of mice following subchronic exposure. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 58(2): 252-261, 1981

Effects of Caramel Colour III on the number of blood lymphocytes: a human study on Caramel Colour III immunotoxicity and a comparison of the results with data from rat studies. Food and Chemical Toxicology 30(5): 427-430, 1992

The effects of o phenyl phenol tris 2 3 di chloropropyl phosphate and cyclo phosphamide on the immune system and host susceptibility of mice following subchronic exposure. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 58(2): 252-261, 1981

Subchronic toxicity study of Caramel Colour II in F344 rats. Food and Chemical Toxicology 30(5): 411-416, 1992

Effects of ochratoxin A on the mouse immune system after subchronic exposure. Food and Chemical Toxicology 33(12): 1005-1011, 1995

Effects of some organophosphate pesticides on the murine immune system following subchronic exposure ii. Archives of Pharmacal Research 9(3): 183-188, 1986

Effects of some organophosphate pesticides on the murine immune system following subchronic exposure i. Archives of Pharmacal Research 9(3): 175-182, 1986

Effects of subchronic exposure to diethylstilbestrol on humoral immune function in adult female (C3B6)F1 mice. Immunopharmacology 7(1): 27-39, 1984

Effect of subchronic 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure on immune system and target gene responses in mice: Calculation of benchmark doses for CYP1A1 and CYP1A2 related enzyme activities. Archives of Toxicology 71(6): 372-382, 1997

Effects of ammonia caramel and tetrahydroxybutylimidazole on the immune system of rats. Archives of Toxicology. Supplement. 13: 183-187, 1989

Hematological effects of chlorine dioxide on in vitro exposure in mouse, rat and human blood and on subchronic exposure in mice. Journal of Health Science 46(2): 110-116, 2000

The effect of subchronic sulfur dioxide exposure on the pulmonary immune response to an inhaled antigen in mice. Israel Journal of Veterinary Medicine 43(1): 81, 1987

Effects of subchronic exposures to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) in mice. II. The design of a CAPs exposure system for biometric telemetry monitoring. Inhalation Toxicology 17(4-5): 189-197, 2005

The organophosphate paraoxon has no demonstrable effect on the murine immune system following subchronic low dose exposure. International Journal of Immunopathology and Pharmacology 21(4): 891-901, 2008