Electrochemical characterization of human skin by impedance spectroscopy: The effect of penetration enhancers
Kontturi, K.; Murtomäki, L.; Hirvonen, J.; Paronen, P.; Urtti, A.
Pharmaceutical Research 10(3): 381-385
The electrochemical properties of human cadaver skin were studied in a diffusion cell with impedance spectroscopy as a function of time in the absence and presence of penetration enhancers dodecyl N,N-dimethylamino acetate and Azone. An improved electrochemical model of skin is presented, and combining the novel model with modern fractal mathematics, the effect of enhancers on the surface of skin is demonstrated. The enhancers appeared to open new penetration routes and increase the ohmic resistance, capacitive properties, and fractal dimension of skin, which means a rougher or more heterogeneous surface.