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Endometrial morphology during hormone replacement therapy with estradiol gel combined to levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device or natural progesterone



Endometrial morphology during hormone replacement therapy with estradiol gel combined to levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device or natural progesterone



Acta Obstetricia Et Gynecologica Scandinavica. 77(7): 758-763,.



Objectives. To evaluate endometrial responses to three different forms of amenorrhea-inducing HRT in postmenopausal women. Material and methods. Fifty-one postmenopausal women completing a one-year HRT trial with percutaneous estradiol gel containing 1.5 mg estradiol daily combined with a levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (LNG-IUD) (n = 18), or natural progesterone 100 mg daily orally (n = 19) or vaginally (n = 15) during 1-25 calendar days of each month. Endometrial thickness and uterine size were measured by transvaginal ultrasound, and endometrial cytology/histology was assessed from specimens taken by needle aspiration before the study and at 12 months. Results. Before medication, the median endometrial thickness was 2.0 mm in the LNG-IUD group, 2.4 mm in the oral P group and 2.5 mm in the vaginal P group. At 12 months of therapy the respective values, 3.0, 2.7 and 2.4 mm, did not differ significantly from the initial values. LNG-IUD induced epithelial atrophy in all women, which was accompanied by stromal decidualization in 12 women. On the contrary, only four women in the oral P group and five women in the vaginal P group had an inactive or atrophic endometrium. The remaining cases were dominated by proliferative features. No hyperplasia was seen in any of the groups. Conclusion: LNG-IUD appeared to be an effective method of counteracting the stimulatory effect of estrogen on the endometrium, whereas natural progesterone given orally or vaginally was not sufficiently effective in this function at the doses used. The vaginal and oral administrations of progesterone did not differ from each other in this respect.

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Accession: 008602869

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 9740525

DOI: 10.1034/j.1600-0412.1998.770711.x


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