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Enhanced pulmonary pathology associated with the use of formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine in cotton rats is not a unique viral phenomenon



Enhanced pulmonary pathology associated with the use of formalin-inactivated respiratory syncytial virus vaccine in cotton rats is not a unique viral phenomenon



Vaccine. 11(14): 1415-1423



The specificity of viral antigens in the formalin-inactivated, alum-precipitated respiratory syncytial virus (FI-RSV) vaccine in augmenting the pulmonary inflammatory response was evaluated. Cotton rats were immunized with a FI-RSV vaccine derived from Vero cells, a monkey cell line, or HEp-2 cells, a human cell line. The FI-RSV/Vero and the FI-RSV/HEp-2 vaccines were prepared similarly to the original Lot-100 FI-RSV vaccine that was associated with enhanced disease in the mid-1960s field trials. Each vaccine was administered intramuscularly at various doses and intervals. At 1, 4 or 7 weeks after the last vaccine dose, cotton rats were challenged with 10-6 plaque-forming units of live RSV grown in HEp-2 cells. For controls, FI-parainfluenza, FI-HEp-2 and alum vaccines, and live RSV primary infection were used. For measuring virus replication and histopathology, lungs were harvested at 4 and 8 days postchallenge. A dose-response relationship to vaccine dose was observed for ELISA, neutralizing and antifusion antibodies. All animals given three doses or two of the higher doses of FI-RSV/Vero vaccine developed significant neutralizing antibody, were protected against pulmonary virus replication and had similar low levels of histopathology compared with live RSV and controls. Two immunizations of the lowest dose of FI-RSV/Vero vaccine did not induce neutralizing antibody, did not provide protection of the lung against RSV and did not enhance the pulmonary cellular response. However, FI-RSV/HEp-2 vaccine was associated with significant enhanced pulmonary histopathology despite inducing high titres of neutralizing antibody and protecting the lungs against RSV infection. FI-HEp-2 vaccine was also associated with significantly enhanced pulmonary histopathology. Under the conditions tested, non-viral antigens played a major role in the augmentation of the pulmonary cellular response in cotton rats that were given FI-RSV/HEp-2 vaccine.

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Accession: 008609026

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 7508665

DOI: 10.1016/0264-410x(93)90170-3


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