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Evolution and phylogeny of Wolbachia: reproductive parasites of arthropods


Evolution and phylogeny of Wolbachia: reproductive parasites of arthropods



Proceedings. Biological Sciences 261(1360): 55-63



ISSN/ISBN: 0962-8452

PMID: 7644549

DOI: 10.1098/rspb.1995.0117

Wolbachia are cytoplasmically inherited bacteria found in reproductive tissues of many arthropod species. These bacteria are associated with reproductive alterations in their hosts, including parthenogenesis, reproductive incompatibility and feminization. A fine-scale phylogenetic analysis was done using DNA sequences from ftsZ, a rapidly evolving bacterial cell-cycle gene. ftsZ sequences were determined for 38 different Wolbachia strains from 31 different species of insects and one isopod. The following results were found: (i) there are two major division of Wolbachia (A and B) which diverged 58-67 millions years before present based upon synonymous substitution rates; (ii) a general concordance is found between the ftsZ and 16S rDNA phylogenies, indicating that these represent bacterial strain (rather than simply gene) phylogenies; however, a possible example of recombination between A and B division bacteria may have occurred in the feminizing Wolbachia present in an isopod; (iii) extensive horizontal transmission of Wolbachia has occurred between insect taxa, including different insect orders; one strain in particular (designated Adm) shows extensive recent horizontal transmission; (iv) there is an association between the Wolbachia found in a parasitic wasp (Nasonia) and its fly host (Protocalliphora), suggesting exchange of bacteria between these species; (v) parthenogenesis induction has evolved several times among the Wolbachia; and (vi) some insects harbour infections with more than one Wolbachia strain, even within individual insects.

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Accession: 008645644

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