Exploring the folding pathways of annexin I, a multidomain protein. I. non-native structures stabilize the partially folded state of the isolated domain 2 of annexin i
Cordier-Ochsenbein, F.; Guerois, R.; Baleux, F.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Lirsac, P.N.; Russo-Marie, F.; Neumann, J.M.; Sanson, A.
Journal of Molecular Biology 279(5): 1163-1175
Proteins of the annexin family constitute very attractive models because of their four approximately 70 residue domains, D1 to D4, exhibiting an identical topology comprising five helix segments with only a limited sequence homology of approximately 30%. We focus on the isolated D2 domain, which is only partially folded. A detailed analysis of this equilibrium partially folded state in aqueous solution and micellar solution using 15N-1H multidimensional NMR is presented. Comparison of the residual structure of the entire domain with that of shorter fragments indicates the presence of long-range transient hydrophobic interactions that slightly stabilize the secondary structure elements. The unfolded domain tends to behave as a four-helix, rather than as a five-helix domain. The ensemble of residual structures comprises: (i) a set of native structures consisting of three regions with large helix populations, in rather sharp correspondence with A, B and E helices, and a small helix population in the second part of the C helix; (ii) a set of non-native local structures corresponding to turn-like structures stabilized by several side-chain to side-chain interactions and helix-disruptive side-chains to backbone interactions. Remarkably, residues involved in these local non-native interactions are also involved, in the native structure, in structurally important non-local interactions. During the folding process of annexin I, the local non-native interactions have to switch to native long-range interactions. This structural switch reveals the existence of a sequence-encoded regulation of the folding pathways and kinetics, and emphasizes the key role of the non-native local structures in this regulation.