Extracellular glutamate and dopamine measured by microdialysis in the rat striatum during blockade of synaptic transmission in anesthetized and awake rats
Shiraishi, M.; Kamiyama, Y.; Hüttemeier, P.C.; Benveniste, H.
Brain Research 759(2): 221-227
ISSN/ISBN: 0006-8993 PMID: 9221940 DOI: 10.1016/s0006-8993(97)00258-8
We investigated the effect of high dose tetrodotoxin (TTX) on microdialysis measurements of extracellular striatal glutamate and dopamine in normal female rats. Both halothane-anesthetized rats with acutely implanted microdialysis probes and awake rats with microdialysis probes implanted for 24 h were tested. Glutamate levels in awake rats were 45% higher than those of anesthetized rats. Extracellular glutamate remained TTX-insensitive regardless of TTX concentration, anesthesia, or time lapsed after probe implantation. In contrast, TTX reduced dialysate dopamine in all TTX concentrations tested. We speculate that the lower glutamate levels in anesthetized rats reflect the effect of anesthesia. Because glutamate is involved, either as a reactant or a product in a variety of reactions critical to intermediary metabolism in the brain, basal dialysate glutamate levels might indirectly reflect brain metabolism. Further, we conclude that extracellular glutamate collected during non-stimulated conditions is TTX-insensitive. The fact that glutamate levels are TTX-independent does not rule out that glutamate is synaptic in origin but rather demonstrates that it is not nerve impulse-dependent. However, the brain interstitial glutamate pool accessible to the microdialysis probe during control conditions is most likely isolated from the synapse, and therefore does not impose a neurotoxic potential.