EurekaMag.com logo
+ Site Statistics
References:
53,869,633
Abstracts:
29,686,251
+ Search Articles
+ Subscribe to Site Feeds
EurekaMag Most Shared ContentMost Shared
EurekaMag PDF Full Text ContentPDF Full Text
+ PDF Full Text
Request PDF Full TextRequest PDF Full Text
+ Follow Us
Follow on FacebookFollow on Facebook
Follow on TwitterFollow on Twitter
Follow on LinkedInFollow on LinkedIn

+ Translate

Facial wrinkling in postmenopausal women. Effects of smoking status and hormone replacement therapy



Facial wrinkling in postmenopausal women. Effects of smoking status and hormone replacement therapy



Maturitas 29(1): 75-86



Background: There is some evidence that hormone replacement therapy may produce significant improvements in fine wrinkling, while aging skin is more frequently found in smokers. However, studies of the combined effect of a protective factor, such as HRT, and a damaging factor, such as smoking, are rare. Objectives: To determine in postmenopausal women the relationship between smoking status and the average number of packets of cigarettes since the subject took up smoking (packs-years) on the one hand, and facial wrinkling on the other, and to evaluate the role of hormone replacement therapy in the prevention of wrinkles in smokers and non-smokers. Methods: All subjects were recruited from our menopause clinic at Hospital Clinic in Provincial in Barcelona and were placed into one of three groups according to their smoking status: 215 life-long non-smokers, 306 former smokers and 209 current smokers. Smoking status, pack-years and hormone replacement were assessed by direct questioning. Facial wrinkle scores were estimated by standardized visual assessment. Results: The relative risk of moderate-severe wrinkling for current smokers compared to that for life-long non-smokers was 2.57 (confidence interval: 1.83-3.06; P < 0.0005). Pack-years was positively related to facial wrinkles. Life-long non-smokers receiving HRT had lower facial wrinkle scores than life-long non-smokers who had never received HRT. HRT did not, in general, modify the facial wrinkle score in current smokers. Conclusion: Our results suggest that the risk of facial wrinkles is greater in smokers and that HRT does not diminish this risk.

Accession: 008670822

Download citation: RISBibTeXText

PMID: 9643520

DOI: 10.1016/s0378-5122(97)00087-x

Download PDF Full Text: Facial wrinkling in postmenopausal women. Effects of smoking status and hormone replacement therapy



Related references

Facial wrinkling in men and women, by smoking status. American Journal of Public Health 85(1): 78-82, 1995

Effects of hormone replacement therapy on bone mineral density in postmenopausal women with primary hyperparathyroidism: four-year follow-up and comparison with healthy postmenopausal women. Archives of Internal Medicine 160(14): 2161-2166, 2000

Hormone replacement therapy does not affect 24-h ambulatory blood pressure in healthy non-smoking postmenopausal women. Blood Pressure Monitoring 8(2): 57-61, 2003

Biochemical markers of bone metabolism in postmenopausal women--the effect of hormone replacement therapy and smoking. Croatian Medical Journal 39(1): 23-27, 1998

Hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women protects against smoking-induced changes in vascular structure and function. Journal of the American College of Cardiology 34(1): 131-137, July, 1999

Hormone replacement therapy and cardioprotection: a new dawn? A statement of the Study Group on Cardiovascular Disease in Women of the Italian Society of Cardiology on hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine 10(1): 85-92, 2009

Effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on periodontal status of postmenopausal women. Medical Science Monitor 17(4): Ph23-Ph27, 2011

The effect of hormone replacement therapy on vitamin E status in postmenopausal women. Maturitas 26(2): 121-124, 1997

Socioeconomic status and use of postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy among Danish women. Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica 84(7): 639-644, 2005

Ascorbic acid status in postmenopausal women with hormone replacement therapy. Maturitas 41(1): 45-50, January 30, 2002

Cigarette smoking serum estrogens and bone loss in early postmenopausal women during hormone replacement therapy. Archives of Gynecology 237(SUPPL): 151-152, 1985

The influence of thinness and smoking on bone loss and response to hormone replacement therapy in early postmenopausal women. Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism 85(2): 590-596, 2000

Effects of hormone replacement therapy on endometrial histology in postmenopausal women: The Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions (PEPI) Trial. JAMA (Journal of the American Medical Association) 275(5): 370-375, 1996

Alterations of micronutrient and mineral status of postmenopausal women with and without hormone replacement therapy. FASEB Journal 18(4-5): Abst 118 6, 2004

Lipid status in postmenopausal women on regular hemodialysis undregoing hormone replacement therapy. Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation 17(Abstracts Supplement 1): 123, 2002