Fatty acids activate transcription of the muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase i gene in cardiac myocytes via the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha

Brandt, J.M.; Djouadi, F.; Kelly, D.P.

Journal of Biological Chemistry 273(37): 23786-23792


ISSN/ISBN: 0021-9258
PMID: 9726988
DOI: 10.1074/jbc.273.37.23786
Accession: 008679000

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To explore the gene regulatory mechanisms involved in the metabolic control of cardiac fatty acid oxidative flux, the expression of muscle-type carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (M-CPT I) was characterized in primary cardiac myocytes in culture following exposure to the long-chain mono-unsaturated fatty acid, oleate. Oleate induced steady-state levels of M-CPT I mRNA 4.5-fold. The transcription of a plasmid construct containing the human M-CPT I gene promoter region fused to a luciferase gene reporter transfected into cardiac myocytes, was induced over 20-fold by long-chain fatty acid in a concentration-dependent and fatty acyl-chain length-specific manner. The M-CPT I gene promoter fatty acid response element (FARE-1) was localized to a hexameric repeat sequence located between 775 and 763 base pairs upstream of the initiator codon. Cotransfection experiments with expression vectors for the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARalpha) demonstrated that FARE-1 is a PPARalpha response element capable of conferring oleate-mediated transcriptional activation to homologous or heterologous promoters. Electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that PPARalpha bound FARE-1 with the retinoid X receptor alpha. The expression of M-CPT I in hearts of mice null for PPARalpha was approximately 50% lower than levels in wild-type controls. Moreover, a PPARalpha activator did not induce cardiac expression of the M-CPT I gene in the PPARalpha null mice. These results demonstrate that long-chain fatty acids regulate the transcription of a gene encoding a pivotal enzyme in the mitochondrial fatty acid uptake pathway in cardiac myocytes and define a role for PPARalpha in the control of myocardial lipid metabolism.